new midterm 1 key - 1 The use of science to preserve...

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1. The use of science to preserve biodiversity is a primary goal of conservation biology. However, biodiversity is a complex variable and can be divided into compositional, structural and functional components. Are the number of genes, the number of individuals in a population, and the kind of community or ecosystem where they reside compositional, structural or functional components? Explain (8 POINTS). The answer to this question is clearly outlined in the text pages 28-29. 6 pts (2 for each correct identification) - All of these fall into the category of compositional components because they are the most basic and simple components that make up biodiversity. 2 pts explaining the difference between compositional, structural and functional components with focus on why these attributes fall into the compositional category. Compositional = genetic constitution of populations, the identity and relative abundance of species in a natural community and the kinds of habitats and communities distributed across the landscape. Structure = phenotypic polymorphisms, sex ratio or age distribution, frequency and distribution of one ecosystem in comparison to others, and the vertical layering and horizontal patchiness of vegetation. Functional = climatic, geologic, hydrologic, ecological and evolutionary processes that generating biodiversity and keep it changing. 3 ). Compare and contrast the resource conservation ethic with the evolution-ecological ethic (the stewardship ethic). Identify the proponent of each viewpoint and indicate the approximate time period over which each ethic was dominant. (8 POINTS) 4 pts – correct definition and explanation of each ethic. 2 pts - correctly identify the proponent of each ethic. 2 pts – correctly identifying the time period of each ethic Resource conservation ethic – late 1980’s through early 1900’s – Gifford said “conservation is the foresighted utilization, preservation and/or renewal of forests, waters, lands and minerals, for the greatest good of the greatest number for the longest time”. In other words the idea was that we should preserve resources solely for our own benefit. Evolution-ecological ethic (the stewardship ethic) – mid to late 1900’s - Leopold believed that a science of conservation was needed that incorporated ecological and ecosystem concepts rather than just maximum yield and economics.
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5. What is the law of diminishing expectations (e.g. shifting baselines)? Why is it significance to conservation? (6 POINTS) 3 pts
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