Final Exam Review Sheet - All Together

Final Exam Review Sheet - All Together - Government 131...

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Government 131 – Introduction to Comparative Politics Final Exam Review Sheet Define the following terms and, when applicable, provide an example. China’s Opening and Reform Period – The old empire faced colonial pressures from different Western powers in the 19 th century, fought a long civil war that led to… 1949 – Peasant revolution led by Mao Zedong w/ leadership drawn from urban middle class 1960s – purging of bourgeois influences in government – the Cultural Revolution 70s-80s – Deng Xiopin brought about market reforms (analogous to Gorbachev’s pereostroika) but ignored political reforms (glasnost) that were part of the dual transition in Russia China’s model has followed a partial opening to market competitiveness and private enterprise (special economic zones – laboratories of capitalism that allow for duty free imports for materials needed to produce exportable items) China’s economy growing at 10% annually, momentum that the gov’t cannot even slow down to forestall inflation China, like previous Asian states, joined the low wage market, but is now moving up to more sophisticated levels of production China relies heavily on foreign investment, unlike others before Businesses are in private hands but are in close alliance with the state China remains a single-party state w/o institutionalized pluralism Has squashed calls for political reform – Tiananmen Square (1989) and recent uprising in Tibet FDI – Foreign Direct Investment – an important component of New Globalization Refers to companies locating plants in other countries to manufacture as well as portfolio investment in stocks and bonds from the West into local stock markets in East Asia Totalitarian regimes – Types – fascist and communist Key Characteristics 1) No pluralism – power is monolithic, no institutionalized political competition, typically a single source of power that controls the state – single political party 2) Has an official ideology – state is governed in accordance w/ specific ideological position, often a nationalist doctrine 3) Mandatory mobilization – require participation, people mobilized from top- down – if you belong to pol party, it must be the official pol party
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4) Penetration and control of civil society by the state – state organized labor unions, professional associations et al and are controlled through ruling party Authoritarian regimes – Types – patrimonial, bureaucratic, single-party Key Characteristics 1) Restricted pluralism – some interests and ideologies tolerated and others marginalized, somewhere b/t unrestricted pluralism of democracy and monolithic power of totalitarianism 2) No guiding ideology – Concentrated pol power, but don’t really stand for anything specific except for maintaining order in country 3) Actively discourage mobilization or participation in politics – want people to
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