America's Gilded Age, 1870-1890 Chapter Study Outline 1 [Introduction: The Statue of Liberty] 2 The Second Industrial Revolution 1 The Industrial Economy By 1913, the United States produced one-third of the world's industrial output. The 1880 census showed for the first time that a majority of the workforce engaged in nonfarming jobs. The growth of cities was vital for financing industrialization. Great Lakes region Pittsburgh Chicago 2 Railroads and the National Market The railroad made possible what is sometimes called the second industrial revolution. The growing population formed an ever-expanding market for the mass production, mass distribution, and mass marketing of goods. 3 The Spirit of Innovation Scientific breakthroughs and technological innovation spurred growth. Thomas Edison 4 Competition and Consolidation The economy suffered prolonged downturns between 1873 and 1897. Businesses engaged in ruthless competition. To avoid cutthroat competition, more and more corporations battled to control entire industries. Between 1897 and 1904, 4,000 firms vanished into larger corporations. 5 The Rise of Andrew Carnegie The railroad pioneered modern techniques of business organization. By the 1890s, Carnegie dominated the steel industry. Vertical integration Carnegie's life reflected his desire to succeed and his desire to give back to society. 6 The Triumph of John D. Rockefeller John D. Rockefeller dominated the oil industry. Industrial leaders were considered either "captains of industry" or "robber barons." 7 Workers' Freedom in an Industrial Age For a minority of workers, the rapidly expanding industrial system created new forms of freedom. For most workers, economic insecurity remained a basic fact of life. Between 1880 and 1900, an average of 35,000 workers perished each year in factory and mine accidents, the highest rate in the industrial world. Class divisions became more and more visible. Many of the wealthiest Americans consciously pursued an aristocratic lifestyle. Thorstein Veblen on conspicuous consumption The working class lived in desperate conditions.
3 The Transformation of the West 1 A Diverse Region The political and economic incorporation of the American West was part of a global process.
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