Lecture Notes 2

Lecture Notes 2 - Avi Goodman Psych 1 Introduction Notes...

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Avi Goodman Psych 1: Introduction Notes for Test 2 Lecture 9 Memory - Memory – our ability to store and retrieve information - Atkinson-Shriffrin’s 3 stage model: o External event sensory memory (perfect representation, but lasts only a very short time) encoding short-term memory retrieval long- term memory - Sensory memory o Sperling (1960) – present subjects with a 9 letter grid for 1/20 th of a second, and when people were asked to remember a line, they did very well o Brief but perfect representation Iconic – pictoral representation Echoic – auditory - Short-term Memory o Limitations in duration – time held without doing anything with it Peterson and Peterson (1959) – present 3 consonants, then test them after a varying amount of time (3-18 secs) o Limitations in capacity – how much can be held in memory 7 plus/minus 2 units of information - Ways to increase short-term memory capacity o Rehearsal – simply practice it o Serial position effect Primacy effect – remember words at beginning Recency effect – remember words at end o Deep processing – thinking about the meaning helps to increase memorization o Chunking – the process of grouping digits or letters into meaningful sequences - Short-term memory v. working memory o Working memory is a system for processing or working with current information Long Term Memory - Duration: debatable - Capacity: limitless - Consolidation – the movement of information into our long-term memory stores o Probably needs emotional connection - Types o Explicit (Declarative) – knowing something, and knowing that you do/ability to state a fact (ex: what is the capital of CA?) 1
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Semantic – memory of general principles (ex: the rules for playing tennis) Episodic – memory for specific events in a person’s life (ex: the last time you played tennis) o Implicit (Procedural) – skills, conditioning effects and associative memory/memory for how to do something Skills (ex: how to play tennis) Conditioning effects (ex: what to do when a tennis ball is hurdling towards your head) Associations Greenwald showed white people white and black faces, and positive and negative words white people were slower to report positive words after seeing a black face, and faster to report negative ones Implicit memory – remembering something without being aware that you are remembering it Priming effect – prior exposure to stimulus alters perception Getting information into long-term memory - 1. Levels of processing – think about conceptual framework o Ability to apply it across situations - 2. Spacing ( don’t cram) o information is recalled better when the information is rehearsed over longer intervals o Bahrick x 4 – learned 300 word pairs, study them over 14, 28, and 56 day intervals 56 day learned it best - 3. Representation Modes o the more ways a memory can be encoded, the greater the likelihood it will be accessible for later retrieval
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This note was uploaded on 05/19/2008 for the course PSC 001 taught by Professor P during the Fall '08 term at UC Davis.

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Lecture Notes 2 - Avi Goodman Psych 1 Introduction Notes...

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