Chapter_25 - Chapter 25 Outline I. Eisenhower Years as...

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Chapter 25 “Outline”I.Eisenhower Years as President 1952-1960A.Foreign Policy1.John Foster Dulles served as President Eisenhower’s Secretary of State .He believed thatTruman’s policy of containment was too passive and advocated a “new look” to US foreignpolicy.Dulles believed that if the United States pushed communist powers to the brink ofwar then they would back down.This is known as Brinkmanship.2.Dulles advocated placing greater reliance on nuclear weapons and air power and spendingless on conventional weapons.This view is known as Massive Retaliation.3.The Central Intelligence Agency was very active in orchestrating various operations aroundthe world, especially in Asia, the Middle East and Latin America, that were meant tocounter the threat of the growth of communist regimes or communist friendly regimes.4.In Iran in 1954 the US CIA orchestrated a coup that toppled the Iranian government led byMohammed Mussadegh and supported the new government that was friendlier to theUnited States led by Reza Pahlavi (Shah of Iran).5.In 1956, a major showdown over Egypt’s nationalization of the Suez Canal nearly broughtthe world to nuclear war as the United Kingdom, France, and Israel invaded Egypt afterEgyptian nationalist president Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal.Fearing Sovietinvolvement the US government pressured the UK, France, and Israel to back down6.As a result of growing Soviet influence in Egypt and Syria the Eisenhower administrationissued the Eisenhower Doctrine in 1957 in which the US pledged economic and military aidto any Middle Eastern country threatened by communism.

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Cold War, 1 Seeking a new cultural identity based on, National Defense Education

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