CHAPTER 9 - CHAPTER 9 INTELLIGENCE Defining Intelligence...

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CHAPTER 9: INTELLIGENCEDefining IntelligencePsychometric approachis a measurement of individual differences in performance(Spearman measured how well many people performed tasks such as following directions, judging musical pitch, matching colors, and doing arithmetic) → Found that performance on any of his tasks correlated positively with performance on any of the others.-gis general intellectual ability-sis specific intellectual ability for a particular taskIntelligence consists of general ability plus an unknown number of specific abilities, such as mechanical, musical, arithmetical, logical, and spatial abilities. Spearman called his theory a “monarchic” theory of intelligence because it included a dominant ability, or monarch (g), that ruled over the lesser abilities.Possible Explanations for g Why do people who perform well on one type of test do well on others also?-the simplest interpretation is that all the tasks measure a single underlying ability -one possibility is working memory (Intellectual Task → ability to shift attention; training task → do not increase other aspects of intelligence)-another possibility is speed of processing information (processing information quickly makes it possible to complete more complicated tasks)-Measurements of sprinting, high jumping, and long jumping correlate with one another because they all depend on the same leg muscles. Similarly, the gfactor that emerges in IQ testing could reflect single ability. -Several types of intelligence correlate because they grow in the same ways-All forms of intelligence depend on genes, health, nutrition, and education. Most people whohave good support for developing one intellectual skill also have good support for developingothers. HIERARCHICAL MODELS OF INTELLIGENCERaymond Cattell- drew a distinction between fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence. -Analogy: Water → Fluid water fits into any shape of container, but an ice crystal has fixed shapeFluid Intelligence:power of reasoning, using information, and solving problems-ability to perceive relationships, solve unfamiliar problems, and gain new knowledge-enables you to learn new skills in new jobs; learn new words (slowly dies when youage)Crystallized Intelligence: acquired skills and knowledge and the ability to apply that knowledge in specific situations. -the job skills you already acquired; words already learned (remain steady, increases)Gardner’s Theory of Multiple IntelligencesMultiple Intelligences: unrelated forms of intelligence, consisting of language, musical
Abilities, logical and mathematical reasoning, spatial reasoning, ability to recognize and classify objects, body movement skills, self-control and self-understanding, and sensitivity to other people’s social signals. -Gardner argues that people can be outstanding in only one type and not others.

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