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CH102 FINAL EXAM REVIEW: A comprehensive compilation of topics from given materials. Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions start when a center of positive charge in one reactant molecule or ion is attracted to a center of negative charge in another. Ionic Precipitations – a result of the attraction between separated positive ions and negative ions to form ordered crystalline solids. Lewis Acid-Base Reactions – characterized by the presence of a nonbonding pair of electrons on one of the reactants, which ends up as an electron pair bond in one of the products. Three types: Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reactions; proton transfer to a Lewis base. Formation of metal ion complexes. Nucleophile (Lewis base) – Electrophile (Lewis acid) reactions Reduction-Oxidation Reactions – characterized by the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another. Continuous Variations Method: The ratio of the numbers of moles of two reactants is varied while their sum is held constant. Used to determine the stoichiometry of reactions. The maximum amount of reaction occurs when the ratio is stoichiometric Lewis base – electron pair donor A strong B-L base accepts protons from water molecules. [OH-] = [base added]. A weak B-L base does not accept all of water’s acidic protons. Lewis acid – electron pair acceptor A strong B-L acid donates protons to water molecules. [H3O+] = [acid added]. A weak B-L acid does not donate all of its acidic protons. The stronger the Lewis base, the weaker its conjugate acid (and vice versa). Predicting Strengths of Acids and Bases: As electronegativity increases basicity decreases . As atomic size increases basicity decreases. As delocalization increases basicity decreases. OVERALL: as STABILITY increases BASICITY decreases. For determining the extent of a reaction… use ICE diagrams.
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Metal Ion Complexes: Definition – A complex ion has a metal ion at its center with a number of other molecules or ions surrounding it. The surrounding molecules are called ligands . All ligands are Lewis bases ; the central metal ion is reacting as a Lewis acid . Solubility? Electrophiles (“electron loving”, Lewis acid) and Nucleophiles (“nucleus loving”, Lewis Bases): ESTERIFICATION: see esterification handout. Condensation reactions: Acid + alcohol → ester + water. Formal Charge: Definition – the charge an atom in a molecule or ion would have if all bonding electrons were shared equally between the bonded atoms. An indicator of the change in polarization of an atom compared to its polarization in a different bonding situation. FC = # valence e - - # lone pair e - - ½ # bonding e - Reactions reduce formal charge. Reduction-Oxidation Reactions:
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