Exam III condensed important topics

Exam III condensed important topics - Introduction lecture...

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ALS lateral corticospinal spinal tract and anterior corticospinal tract Polio specifically affects the anterior corticospinal tract Multiple sclerosis demylinating plaques within the brain leading to neurologic deficits. Diseases can be focal, system related (ALS or polio), or ubiquitous like in a lysosomal storage disease. Tay Sachs disease lysosomal storage disease, will likely see inclusion bodies within several cells when looking at under a microscope. Slide 21 When you have an injury to the axon downstream to the cell body you will get swelling of the cell body. This is a reversible process at this point. Distal to injury (Wallarian degeneration) you will get macrophages trying to clean stuff up and aid in repair by breaking down the old myelin and hopefully it will repair itself. Slide 28 Red neurons: these are neurons that have undergone acute ischemic injury. Cytoplasm is very eosinophilic an shrinking, lose orientation to the surface no longer being perpendicular. Slide 35 Neurofibrillary tangles: Alzheimer’s dz. Slide 36 *Lipofuscin: due to oxidative injury wear and tear pigment. As you get older these appear in the brain normally overtime. Appear as large inclusions that look like oxidative injury has occurred. *Kernicterus hyperbilirubinemia, hemolytic disease of newborn. In adult liver normally handles it and gets rid of it. Fetus does not have the enzyme yet, so it cannot be getting rid of the kidney and therefore builds up in plasma. Neuromelanin is found in the substantia nigra. Intracellular viral inclusions can result from cytomegalovirus in fetus, herpes, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (measles), and negri bodies (rabies, found in hippocampus). Slide 45 You will find lewy bodies in Parkinson’s patients and patients with dementia. You may find lafora bodies in patients with familial myoclonal epilepsy. Slide 50 Whenever you have injury to the brain you are going to get a proliferation of glial cells in that area. This results in gliosis. Slide 54 Astrocytoma: cancer as a result of an astrocyte. Slide 62 Oligodendrocytoma: oligodendrocytes cell cancer. The cells looked like fried egg look. Slide 65 Microglial cell cancer is usually referred to as a lymphoma because they are like macrophages. Ependyoma: tumor of the ependymal cells. Remember this lines the choroid plexus which can lead to excess production of CSF. Relatively benign unless in a bad location. Slide 76 Cerebral edema: causes include injury, large infarcts, hemorrhage, inflammation, tumors, and systemic dz. Can impede circulation leading to infarction of an area. It can cause disruption of structures such as fiber tracts cause axons to not function properly, can cause herniation of specific areas of brain (tonsilar would compress respiratory center of brainstem, transtentorial or uncal, cingulated gyrus). Cerbrovascular accidents
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This note was uploaded on 05/20/2008 for the course NEURO 5125 taught by Professor Bales during the Spring '08 term at Western University of Health Sciences.

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Exam III condensed important topics - Introduction lecture...

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