Good_MARTIN - Lecture 1. Introduction to the Study of the...

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Lecture 1. Introduction to the Study of the Nervous System Here are some things you should learn from this lecture and your readings. 1. Understand how brain function and structure is related to natural selection. 2. Understand the concept of localization of function and appreciate its history. 3. In what ways are human brains limited? 4. Explain what factors determine the overall structure of your brain. 5. 6. Know what two major ways the nervous system uses to transmit information. 7. Understand the 8 functional principles of brain organization from Chap. 2 Reading Assignment : Chapter 1 & 2 and the Preface in Lecture Outline: I. What is the Function of the Nervous System? A. Internal Communication and Homeostasis B. Monitoring of and Response to External Environment C. Fig 1 = most prevalent neurological disorder is hearing and speech deficits, followed by language deficits II. Levels of Study of the Nervous System A. Molecular/Biochemical B. Cellular C. Cell Assemblies and Circuits (Fig 2) = brain spinal column peripheral nerves; CNS is a hierarchical model composed of systems, networks, neurons, synapses, etc D. Organ System E. Behavioral III. Determinants of Nervous System Structure A. Evolution and Natural Selection = size and distribution of 5 main regions of brain based on survival needs of species thru evolution i.e. sedentary animals (frogs) have small cerebellum, whereas swift, active animals have larger cerebellum B. Gene Action and Development = brain changes from time of conception and during development; neuronal levels change as learning occurs IV. History of Neuroscience - How Did We Get Here? A. Trephination in Peru = creation of hole in skull to access brain and cure ailments such headaches B. Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus = 1 st written document on how to deal w/ problems of the NS (Egyptian) C. The Mechanist-Vitalist Controversy: (Aristotle, Decartes and Darwin) brain acts like a machine to control muscles & movement (mechanist) vs mind (sprit, psyche) controls brain (vitalist); Decartes’ idea – mind is separate from the body D. Cell Pioneers & Organ System Pioneers = Theodor Schwann, Agus Waller, Louise Antoine Ranvier, Carl Weigert, Santiago Ramon y Cajal were all histologists that contributed to being able to find pathologies of brain (axon paths, brain pathways, etc) E. The Struggle over Localization of Function 1. Memory Storage - Karl Lashley 2. Phrenology - Franz Gall = thought organization of brain was reflected by bumps on brain; different behavioral traits could be related to size of different parts of skull certain functions of brain were localized 3. Broca - "Nous parlon avec l'hemisphere gauche" = localized area for speech (Broca’s area) lesions to area would cause inability to speak (Broca’s aphasia)
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4. Wernicke – Connectionism = localized area for speech comprehension Wernicke’s
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This note was uploaded on 05/20/2008 for the course NEURO 5125 taught by Professor Bales during the Spring '08 term at Western University of Health Sciences.

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Good_MARTIN - Lecture 1. Introduction to the Study of the...

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