My_Neuroscience_Microbiology_Notes

My_Neuroscience_Microbiology_Notes - Dr. Saviola...

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Dr. Saviola Neurological Bacterial infections What are the compartments and membranes of the central nervous system where you can get an infection? Pia mater, subarachnoid space, arachnoid matter, subdural, dura mater, epidural space Where is CSF located, produced, and reabsorbed? What are the differences in composition of the CSF compared to plasma? What is the appearance of normal CSF? CSF is located in the ventricles and gets reabsorbed in the subarachnoid space. It is produced by the choroid plexus . The levels of protein, glucose, and cells within the CSF are much lower than the plasma. If any of these are altered could indicate a problem with the CNS. Normal CSF is an ultrafiltrate of plasma and thus should be very clear . If it is clouded that along with a good Hx could indicate bacterial meningitis. A person with viral meningitis will still have clear CSF. What are the possible ways that you can get an accumulation of CSF? You can get an accumulation of CSF as a result of increased production, decreased reabsorption (arachnoid granulation) or a physical blockage of the interventricular foramen or cerebral aqueduct. What is meningitis? It is an inflammation of the meninges of the brain or spinal cord, infection is going to be located within the subarachnoid space or CSF. It can be acute, recurring or chronic. There are several causes. Define encephalitis? Inflammation of the brain. Define myelitis? Inflammation of the spinal cord. What is a brain abscess? Focal intracranial infection in the brain develops into a collection of pus surrounded by a capsule. When it gets large enough it can causes swelling in the brain. Where does a subdural empyema occur? It is an infection between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater. Where would you find an epidural abscess?
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It is going to be located in the epidural space between the dura mater and the skull or vertebral column. What are the normal immune system component levels within the CNS? Antibody concentrations within the CNS are usually quite low with a serum/CSF antibody ratio or 800:1. There are very low levels of lymphocytes in the CSF and no plasma or polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Complement components are also not present within the CNS. Where does the BBB get breached with inflammation? What things of note can now get into the CNS? The location where the BBB usually gets breached is primarily at the microvascular endothelium. This can happen by bacterial components causing secretion by local macrophages of cytokines in the subarachnoid space. As a result serum protein and polymorphonuclear leukocytes may now be present. Will often also find plasma cells producing antibodies, t-lymphocytes of CMI, and antibiotics can now cross the BBB. What are the different routes of infection into the CNS?
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This note was uploaded on 05/20/2008 for the course NEURO 5125 taught by Professor Bales during the Spring '08 term at Western University of Health Sciences.

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My_Neuroscience_Microbiology_Notes - Dr. Saviola...

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