Pros and cons list Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs) are nurses with a master’s, post-masters, or doctoral degree in a nursing specialty. They acquired the expert knowledge base, complex decision-making skills and clinical competencies for expanded practice, and in most states they can practice medicine without the supervision of a physician. They are generally four types of APRNs: Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS), Certified Nurse Practitioner (CNP), Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM), and Certified Registered Nurse Anaesthetist (CRNA) (DeNisco & Barker, 2013). Although each of them required a different training and advanced skills, but they must possess advanced knowledge, sharp and sound critical thinking skills and a complex decision making processes (Buppert, 2011; DeNisco et al., 2013). Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS) Pros: CNSs work within a specialized area of nursing practice such as cardiac, oncology, neonatal, paediatric, and obstetric and gynaecological nursing. They provide direct patient care, assess and treat holistically the entire needs of the patient from wellness to illness (Brassard & Thompkins (2014). They also work in supervisory roles, administrative positions and as researchers (Kaplow, Shapiro, & Higgins, 2017). They practice across the span of health care delivery systems, including hospitals, clinics, private practice, schools, nursing homes, corporations and prisons. In 28 states, they practice independently, and prescribe independently in 19 states. They have a lot of autonomy and can perform any duty specific to their training (Buppert, 2011). Cons: CNNs work with specific patient populations rather than through general practice. The focus of a CNS’ speciality may be a specific disease area, or it can be another aspect of patient care; for example, a particular population group (e.g. children), a care arena (e.g. palliative care), or a treatment category (e.g. chemotherapy) (Delp et al. 2016). The provision of this role
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