Ch 3 Summary - Cindy Li Professor Lowery ART 101 18...

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Cindy LiProfessor LoweryART 10118 September 2016Summary – Chapter 3The Egyptians were blessed with abundant sources of stone of different hues suitable for carving statues and fashioning building blocks. The Egyptians believed in the eternal existence of a person’s ka, or life force. It continued to inhabit the corpse after and individual died, therefore, those who could afford it, lavishly furnished their tombs for the “next life.” In order to receive the award of eternal life, an individual must pass judgement, which is illustrated in the Book of the Deadfound in the tomb of Humfer, the royal scribe and steward of Seti I.One of thesections of the scroll illustrates the Judgement of Hunefer, where he is deemed fit for and awarded eternal life. This was the goal of every Egyptian and the subject of much of Egyptian artand architecture for several thousand years.The backbone of Egypt was, and still is, the Nile River. Its annual floods supported all life in the ancient land and defined the cultures that developed along its banks. The Kingdom of the Nile became a province of the Roman Empire after the death of Queen Cleopatra, but during the Middle Ages, the detailed knowledge of the Egyptians and their gods possessed by the Romans was largely forgotten. It wasn’t until the Enlightenment of the 18thcentury that scholars began to piece together Egypt’s history through various references, including preserved portions of a third-century BCE history of Egypt written in Greek by Manetho, an Egyptian high priest. Archaeological exploration of the land of the Nile began in the late 18thcentury. In 1799,
Napoleon Bonaparte and his troop discovered the Rosetta Stone on a military expedition in Egypt. Now in the British Museum, the Rosetta Stoneprovided an essential key to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphicwriting.Scholars deduced that the hieroglyphics were not simply pictographs, but instead the signs of a once-spoken language whose traces survived in Coptic, thelanguage of Christian Egypt.In the Egyptian creation story, the creator god, Amen, appeared on a muddy mound that rose out of the limitless waters. He brought light to the world that previously existed alone in the darkness. As the supreme god, Amen created the first of the other gods and goddesses of Egypt. He first produced Shu and Tefnut, who gave birth to Geb and Nut. Those two later bore Osiris, Seth, Isis, and Nephthys. In the myth of Osiris, the god of order, his brother, the god of chaos, murdered him and cut him into pieces, scattering the pieces throughout Egypt. Isis succeeded in collecting the body parts and used magic to bring him back, and eventually had a son, Horus. Horus displaced Seth as king of Egypt in order to avenge his father. From there, Egyptians identify the living kings with Horus, then with Osiris in the afterlife.

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