Cold War QuestionsPrologue and Introduction:1. Gaddis is a history professor at Yale and is therefore a credible source as he has background asa professional in the field. 2. The purpose of the text was to give a brief summary of the Cold war and the effects it had on the two major powers involved – the USSR and USA. Chapter One:1. The US ideology focused on individual freedoms protected by a central government [in line with the revolution of 1776] while the USSR focused on the ideals of the Bolshevik Rev. – unification of the classes, a unified national identity managed by an authoritarian government.The US economy was thriving after the war and had primarily capitalist policies. However the US was unable to maintain employment at the level the USSR had in the prewar years. The USSR economy suffered following WWII due to extreme losses – workforce, property, industry.2. Security for the USSR and its communist ideology, as well as reclamation of all Soviet territories lost in the war. Stalin also wanted to punish Germany for its actions against Russia in WWII.3.Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Bessarabia, Subcarpathian Ruthenia, Northern Bukovina, and Eastern Poland – annexed by USSR / Eastern Germany and East Prussia – annexed by Poland / Venezia Guilia - annexed by Yugoslavia
4. National security and ideological domination – capitalism over communism. Roosevelt’s mainobjectives - maintain alliances (Great Britain, USSR, China), allied cooperation in the peace settlement, security organization5. Maintain alliance with the US, destroy USSR6. British/US trying to help the USSR resist pressure to ally with Germany by diverting German forces away from the Red Army’s Eastern front. This was in an effort to convince USSR of the Anglo-US allies’ good intentions – it failed.7. Soviet sphere - to cluster occupied territories as a barrier between the rest of Europe and the USSR, Stalin intended to rule absolutely over these areas, despite promises to elect leaders made in the Yalta Conference. Stalin reneging on these promises removed US/British trust in USSR.8. Stalin installed pro-USSR governments or appointed Soviet leaders to resistant countries [Poland].9. France, Britain, US – West Germany / USSR – East Germany 10. US’s use of the A-bomb led to Stalin’s distrust of America and development of sentiments that would further the arms race [Stalin began a weapons program in response to A-bomb]11. The “security dilemma” w/ US, Britain, and USSR that began sometime before the end of WWII even ended, which created distrust between these nations and fighting for superiority in security and weapons development.12. Stalin initially refused to remove his army from Iran [he later did] demanded territories and bases that would give the Soviets control of the Turkish Straits and the eastern Mediterranean [US basically said FU]
13. It became the basis for US strategy regarding the USSR for the rest of the Cold War.