PHL 419 Heavy metals toxicity_part_2 - Cadmium 48 Cd 112 Cadm ium Cadmium Toxicity Cadmium is an extremely toxic metal commonly found naturally in in

PHL 419 Heavy metals toxicity_part_2 - Cadmium 48 Cd 112...

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Cadmium48Cd112Cadmium
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Cadmium is an extremely toxic metal commonly found naturally in in earth’s crust combined with chlorine (cadmium chloride), oxygen (cadmium oxide), or sulfur (cadmium sulfide) mixed with other metals in natural ores.It occurs as byproduct of the mining and smelting of lead and zinc.Cd is number 7 on ATSDR's "Top 20 list." In industrial workplaces It is used , nickel-cadmium batteries, PVC plastics.Cadmium pigments, which are commonly used in strong oranges, reds, and yellows, are utilized in manufacturing of paint and art colors . It is also utilized massively in agricultural industry that it is found mainly in soil (insecticides, fungicides, and commercial of phosphate fertilizers). Cadmium Toxicity
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Cigarettes and car exhaust also contain cadmium. Industries of Semiconductors, electroplating, and motor oil, are considered also sources of Cd. Dental materials like crowns.Cadmium has low permeability and is most toxic in its ionic form unlike mercury .Inhalation accounts for 15-50% of absorption through the respiratory system; 2-7% of ingested cadmium is absorbed in the GIT. Target organs are the liver, placenta, kidneys, lungs, brain, and bones .1ARSENIC2LEAD3MERCURY4VINYL CHLORIDE5POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS6BENZENE7CADMIUM8BENZO(A)PYRENE9POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS10BENZO(B)FLUORANTHENE11CHLOROFORM12AROCLOR 126013DDT, P,P'-14AROCLOR 125415DIBENZO(A,H)ANTHRACENE16TRICHLOROETHYLENE17CHROMIUM, HEXAVALENT18DIELDRIN19PHOSPHORUS, WHITE20HEXACHLOROBUTADIENECadmium Toxicity
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Cd Mode of exposureInhalation: Cd exists as small particles (Cd dust) in air, result of smelting, soldering or other high temp. industrial processes. Tobacco smoke is an important source of cadmium exposure.Coal burning is considered important source of environmental cadmium. Incineration of wastes containing cadmium is an important source of the metal in the environment (Cd fumes).
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Ingestion: The greatest proportion of our exposure to cadmium comes from our food supply, but only a small amount is absorbedseafood, organ meats particularly kidneys, and liver and also from leafy vegetables, potatoes, and grains like rice are considered sources of Cd.Cd Mode of exposure
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Cadmium has no known beneficial function in the human bodyIs transported in the blood bound to metallothioneinGreatest concentrations found in kidneys and liver.Urinary excretion is slowBiologic half-life may be up to 30 yrs.Toxicokinetics
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Cadmium toxicityMechanism of action:Lungs and kidneys are more sensitive to the hazardous effects of cadmium followed by skeletal muscles and bones.Binds to SH- groups, displacing other metals from metalloenzymes, disrupting those enzymesCompetes with calcium for binding sites on regulatory proteins and bonesAccelerates lipid peroxidation and cause oxidative stress. Cause direct mitochondrial injuries and impairs DNA repair mechanisms
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Cd Mechanism of Toxicity
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Symptoms of toxicity:
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  • Toxicology, Lead poisoning, cadmium poisoning

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