philosophy 4 final review

philosophy 4 final review - Cultural Relativism 3. What...

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Cultural Relativism 3. What does the cultural relativist think about morality? The moral code of a society deems what is right and wrong in that society. The cultural relativist agrees that there are moral facts, but states that these moral facts depend on the society in which they are being applied. If society A disagrees with a moral fact from society B, then society A simply disregards that fact. 4. Explain the cultural differences argument and the main objection to this argument. The cultural differences argument states that different cultures have different moral codes, and therefore, there is no moral standard, which applies to all cultures. Now, in this argument, the premise (societies have different moral cultures) is true, but the conclusion (there is no universal moral standard for all cultures) is false. 5. Explain two objections to cultural relativism. 1. We couldn’t say that the customs of other societies are inferior to our own . It seems immoral to simply accept the actions of other cultures when they practice things like infanticide, female circumcision, and religious intolerance. 2. We could decide whether an action or idea is right or wrong simply by asking our society. This is disconcerting because there are many things about the code of our society that we would change. Cultural relativism leaves no room for us to change or disagree with the morals of our own society as well as others. 3. There is no room for moral growth. Take the example of women or slaves. At earlier times, they had limited rights. However, many feel that we made social progress when we changed these ideas. According to cultural relativism, this is impossible because it’s a mistake to judge the standards of other eras to our own because those standards were correct in that culture and time, just as different standards of different countries are correct now. 6. What is non-objectivism? David Hume argued that if there are objective moral truths, they are discoverable through reason or experience. Furthermore, they are not discoverable through reason, and they are not discoverable through experience, so there are no objective moral truths. Discovering something through reason instills no desire or motivation, it’s simply understanding facts about the world. 7. What is the difference between cognitism and noncognitism? Noncognitism argues that moral sentences have no truth conditions and don’t express 8. What is simple subjectivism? Provide illustrations. Simple subjectivism interprets ethical statements as facts about our attitude towards issues. When a person says something is right or wrong, they are in essence simply that they approve of or disapprove of that thing. It makes no reference as to the goodness or badness of something, it simply emphasizes that everyone has different opinions on actions and ideas. Examples: When Jerry Falwell says that homosexuality is immoral, he is merely stating
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philosophy 4 final review - Cultural Relativism 3. What...

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