Brain Waves Module 3: Neuroscience, conflict, and securityContentsSummary iiiWorking Group Membership viAcknowledgements viii1 Introduction 11.1 Scope of the report 11.2 Report outline 2Box 1: Neuroimaging and Neuro-Stimulation 32 Review of current military and law enforcement interest in applications of neuroscience and neurotechnology 52.1 Performance enhancement 52.2 Performance degradation or weaponisation 7Box 2: Chemical and biological weapons and the conventions that prohibit them 82.3 Other areas beyond scope of RS study 163 The legal framework 183.1 International Humanitarian Law 183.2 Arms Control and Disarmament Law 21
3.3 International Human Rights Law 24Box 3: Ethical perspectives 264 Performance Enhancement 284.1 Scope and limits in context of current interest 284.2 Recruitment 294.3 Training and learning 304.4 Enhancing Cognitive Performance 32Box 4: Oxytocin 334.5 Rehabilitation 405 Performance degradation or weaponisation 435.1 Scope and limits in context of current interest 435.2 Neuropharmacological approaches 43Box 5: The Dose-Response Curve 455.3 Other approaches to incapacitation 525.4 Policy issues 54Box 6: Incapacitating chemical agents versus riot control agents 566 Recommendations 606.1Scientific Community606.2 UK Government 606.3 International Community 61List of Acronyms 64
SummaryNeuroscience is a rapidly advancing fieldencompassing a range of applications and technologies that are likely to provide significant benefits to society, particularlyin the treatment of neurological impairment, disease, and psychiatricillness. However, this new knowledgesuggests a number of potential military and law enforcement applications. These can be divided into two main goals: performance enhancement, i.e. improvingthe efficiency of one’s own forces, andperformance degradation, i.e. diminishingthe performance of one’s enemy. In thisreport we consider some of the key advances in neuroscience, such asneuropharmacology, functionalneuroimaging and neural interface systems, which could impact upon thesedevelopments and the policy implications for the international community, the UKgovernment and the scientific community.