Brain Waves Module 3 - Brain Waves Module 3 Neuroscience...

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Brain Waves Module 3: Neuroscience, conflict and security February 2012
Cover image: This sagittal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan shows a cross-section of the brain. Neuroimaging techniques such as MRI enable a non-invasive measurement of the brain’s structure, biochemistry or function and could provide a range of military applications, from new tools to screen and select personnel to improved learning and training paradigms. Reproduced with kind permission from the Oxford Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford. RS Policy document 06/11 Issued: February 2012 DES2419 ISBN: 978-0-85403-938-8 © The Royal Society, 2012 Requests to reproduce all or part of this document should be submitted to: The Royal Society Science Policy Centre 6 – 9 Carlton House Terrace London SW1Y 5AG T +44 (0)20 7451 2500 E [email protected] W royalsociety.org
Brain Waves Module 3: Neuroscience, conflict, and security Contents Summary iii Working Group Membership vi Acknowledgements viii 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Scope of the report 1 1.2 Report outline 2 Box 1: Neuroimaging and Neuro-Stimulation 3 2 Review of current military and law enforcement interest in applications of neuroscience and neurotechnology 5 2.1 Performance enhancement 5 2.2 Performance degradation or weaponisation 7 Box 2: Chemical and biological weapons and the conventions that prohibit them 8 2.3 Other areas beyond scope of RS study 16 3 The legal framework 18 3.1 International Humanitarian Law 18 3.2 Arms Control and Disarmament Law 21
3.3 International Human Rights Law 24 Box 3: Ethical perspectives 26 4 Performance Enhancement 28 4.1 Scope and limits in context of current interest 28 4.2 Recruitment 29 4.3 Training and learning 30 4.4 Enhancing Cognitive Performance 32 Box 4: Oxytocin 33 4.5 Rehabilitation 40 5 Performance degradation or weaponisation 43 5.1 Scope and limits in context of current interest 43 5.2 Neuropharmacological approaches 43 Box 5: The Dose-Response Curve 45 5.3 Other approaches to incapacitation 52 5.4 Policy issues 54 Box 6: Incapacitating chemical agents versus riot control agents 56 6 Recommendations 60 6.1 Scientific Community 60 6.2 UK Government 60 6.3 International Community 61 List of Acronyms 64
Summary Neuroscience is a rapidly advancing field encompassing a range of applications and technologies that are likely to provide significant benefits to society, particularly in the treatment of neurological impairment, disease, and psychiatric illness. However, this new knowledge suggests a number of potential military and law enforcement applications. These can be divided into two main goals: performance enhancement, i.e. improving the efficiency of one’s own forces, and performance degradation, i.e. diminishing the performance of one’s enemy. In this report we consider some of the key advances in neuroscience, such as neuropharmacology, functional neuroimaging and neural interface systems, which could impact upon these developments and the policy implications for the international community, the UK government and the scientific community.

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