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Study guide S08_ Exam 3

Study guide S08_ Exam 3 - Study guide BIO 311C Exam 3...

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Study guide BIO 311C Exam 3 Chapters 8, 9, 10, 16, 54 (partly) Chapters 8 and 54: 1) Differentiate based on examples: potential energy, kinetic energy, anabolism, catabolism Potential energy : A diver climbing a ladder in order to dive to the ocean. Kinetic energy: A lion running after a gazelle Anabolism: Photosynthesis Catabolism: Respiration 2) Know the two laws of thermodynamics discussed. 1 st Law: Energy is transformed or transferred, never created or destroyed 2 nd Law: As energy is released, entropy increases. 3) Carbon and nitrogen cycles – know reservoirs and key processes (see fig in text) Carbon Cycle Reservoirs: Major Reservoirs Fossil fuels Soil Sediments of aquatic ecosystems Oceans Animal and Plant biomass Atmosphere Largest Reservoir Sedimentary rocks – too slow Key Processes: Photosynthesis by plants and phytoplankton removes substantial amounts of atmospheric CO 2 each year. This quantity is approximately equaled by CO 2 added to the atmosphere through cellular respiration by producers and consumers. Over geologic time, volcanoes are a substantial source of CO 2 . The burning of fossil fuels is adding significant amounts of additional CO 2 to the atmosphere. Decomposition and photosynthesis contribute the most. Nitrogen cycle Reservoirs: Atmosphere – 80% N 2 Soils Sediments of lakes, rivers, and oceans Dissolved in surface water and groundwater systems
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Biomass of living organisms. Key Processes: The major pathway for nitrogen to enter an ecosystem is via nitrogen fixation, the conversion of N 2 by bacteria to forms that can be used to synthesize nitrogenous organic compounds. Some nitrogen is also fixed by lightning. Nitrogen fertilizer, precipitation, and blowing dust can also provide substantial inputs of ammonium and nitrogen oxide to ecosystems. Ammonification decomposes organic nitrogen to ammonium. In nitrification, ammonium is converted to nitrogen oxide by nitrifying bacteria. Under anaerobic conditions, denitrifying bacteria uses nitrogen oxide in their metabolism instead of oxygen, releasing nitrogen gas in a process known as denitrification. 4) Energy flow and nutrient cycling in an ecosystem (54.2) Energy Flow: Nitrogen Cycle and Carbon Cycle and Burnt fossil fuel Nutrient Cycling: 54.16 5) Trophic relationship and nutrient cycling model (54.16) 6) Know to determine if a reaction is exergonic/endergonic, spontaneous/non- spontaneous depending on calculated G values. (Know the formula: G = H – T S) 7) What are the types of work powered by ATP? Chemical, Mechanical, and Transport 8) Be able to determine whether a particular exergonic reaction can be coupled to an endergonic reaction (using G values). 9) Know to label parts of a graph of an enzyme catalyzed reaction – Fig 8.15
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Study guide S08_ Exam 3 - Study guide BIO 311C Exam 3...

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