Psych 104 questions - 1 Chapter 1 PSYCHOLOGY AND SCIENTIFIC THINKING Multiple Choice Questions 1 The term refers to the use of everyday sources to

Psych 104 questions - 1 Chapter 1 PSYCHOLOGY AND SCIENTIFIC...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Chapter 1: PSYCHOLOGY AND SCIENTIFIC THINKING Multiple Choice Questions 1) The term ________ refers to the use of everyday sources to understand and explain human behaviour. a. common sense b. psychology c. popular psychology d. experimental psychology Answer: c Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-1 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 4 Topic: Psychology and Scientific Thinking: A Framework for Everyday Life Skill: Factual 2) According to the authors, much of the knowledge from popular psychology sources a. is of no or very little interest to psychologists. b. is contradicted by what psychological research has demonstrated. c. is not able to be studied empirically. d. is consistent with the results of psychological research. Answer: c Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-2 Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 4 Topic: Psychology and Scientific Thinking: A Framework for Everyday Life Skill: Conceptual 3) When students begin to read through their introductory psychology textbook, they are often surprised to learn that a. commonsense explanations abound in the field of psychology. b. many of their beliefs about the causes of thoughts and behaviours are incorrect. c. psychology is a unique field of study separate from philosophy and biology. d. psychologists do not study people's everyday behaviours. Answer: b Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-3 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 4-5 Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition Test Bank for Lilienfeld et al, Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding, 2ce 2 Skill: Conceptual 4) According to the authors, psychology is a method for a. determining simple answers to complex questions. b. restating commonsense findings in a more convoluted manner. c. gaining deeper insight into how and why people think and act a certain way. d. knowing how to turn people from maladaptive to adaptive actions, feelings, and thoughts. Answer: c Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-4 Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 4-5 Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition Skill: Conceptual 5) Evaluating personal relationships and the way we relate to other people involves the __________ level of analysis. a. biological b. social-cultural c. psychological d. interpersonal Answer: b Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-5 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 5 Topic: Psychology and Levels of Analysis Skill: Factual 6) A psychologist is often skeptical of claims suggesting a. that a person's future behaviour is often difficult to predict accurately. b. a particular behaviour is the result of a single causal factor. c. a person's culture is a strong influence on his or her everyday thoughts and behaviours. d. people are influenced by others' thoughts and behaviours. Answer: b Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-6 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 5 Topic: What Makes Psychology Challenging—and Fascinating Skill: Factual Test Bank for Lilienfeld et al, Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding, 2ce 3 7) Trying to explain complex human behaviours, like violence, in terms of one causal factor, such as genes or video games, fails to acknowledge that ______________. a. biological roots to behaviour are more important than other causes b. actions are multiply determined c. individual differences prevent us from making any conclusions d. behaviour is always reciprocally determined Answer: b Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-7 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 5-6 Topic: What Makes Psychology Challenging—and Fascinating Skill: Conceptual 8) Johanna is a researcher in Spain, and conducts research on how Spanish culture shapes body image in young Spanish teenage girls. Johanna is using a(n) _________ approach to cross-cultural psychology. a. etic b. emic c. apophenic d. pareidolic Answer: b Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-8 Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 5-6 Topic: What Makes Psychology Challenging—and Fascinating Skill: Applied 9) __________________ refers to the fact that we mutually influence each other’s behaviour. a. Mutual exclusion b. Kin selection c. Reciprocal determinism d. Naïve realism Answer: c Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-9 Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 6 Topic: What Makes Psychology Challenging—and Fascinating Skill: Factual Test Bank for Lilienfeld et al, Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding, 2ce 4 10) We trust our common sense and may believe in popular psychology claims because we are prone to a. the confirmation bias. b. naïve realism. c. logical fallacies. d. communalism. Answer: b Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-10 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 6-7 Topic: Why We Can’t Always Trust Our Common Sense Skill: Factual 11) A major problem with common sense proverbs is that they often coexist with their complete opposite. This violates which principle of critical thinking? a. Replicability b. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence c. Parsimony/Occam's razor d. Falsifiability Answer: d Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-11 Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 6-7, 23-25 Topic: Why We Can’t Always Trust Our Common Sense & A Basic Framework for Scientific Thinking Skill: Conceptual 12) You could tell one friend that “haste makes waste,” and tell another friend that they should “strike while the iron is hot.” That both claims sound reasonable would appear to violate the critical thinking principle of a. Replicability b. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence c. Parsimony/Occam's razor d. Falsifiability Answer: d Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-12 Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 6-7, 23-25 Test Bank for Lilienfeld et al, Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding, 2ce 5 Topic: Why We Can’t Always Trust Our Common Sense & A Basic Framework for Scientific Thinking Skill: Conceptual 13) Modern psychology is best considered to be a a. series of contradictions to be sorted out. b. science. c. collection of pieces of folk wisdom. d. therapeutic process. Answer: b Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-13 Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 8 Topic: Psychology as a Science Skill: Factual 14) Members of the scientific community believe that psychology is best considered to be a a. science. b. weak science. c. hard science d. soft science. Answer: a Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-14 Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 8 Topic: Psychology as a Science Skill: Factual 15) The tendency to look for supportive evidence rather than actively seeking out contradictory evidence is known as a. the availability heuristic. b. the hindsight bias. c. the confirmation bias. d. belief perseverance. Answer: c Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-15 Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 10 Topic: Psychology as a Science Test Bank for Lilienfeld et al, Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding, 2ce 6 Skill: Factual 16) Suppose Dr. Fish has a theory that says you cannot live without two working eyes. To demonstrate this is true, Dr. Fish brings to you hundreds of living people, each of whom has two working eyes. This demonstrates the a. the availability heuristic. b. the hindsight bias. c. the confirmation bias. d. belief perseverance. Answer: c Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-16 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 10 Topic: Psychology as a Science Skill: Conceptual 17) Douglas believes that females are more polite and respectful than males. He easily recalls examples of this and constantly points out situations to others that support this belief. However, he often ignores evidence to the contrary. Douglas's belief about gender differences in socially appropriate behaviour is maintained through a. the representativeness heuristic. b. the confirmation bias. c. belief perseverance. d. the hindsight bias. Answer: b Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-17 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 10 Topic: Psychology as a Science Skill: Conceptual 18) Police interrogators often assume that persons brought in for questioning have important knowledge about the crime in question. If this leads an interrogator to ask questions that assume the guilt of a particular individual rather than asking questions that would exonerate him or her, ________ may occur. a. belief perseverance b. the availability heuristic c. confirmation bias d. the anchoring and adjustment heuristic Answer: c Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-18 Test Bank for Lilienfeld et al, Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding, 2ce 7 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 10 Topic: Psychology as a Science Skill: Conceptual 19) In Alice in Wonderland, the Cheshire Cat tells Alice that “most everyone’s mad here. I’m mad, you’re mad.” And Alice protests, “But how do you know I’m mad?!” “Because,” says the Cat, “if you weren’t, you wouldn’t have come here.” So Alice begins to look for other examples of madness in the strange world, demonstrating a. belief perseverance. b. the availability heuristic. c. confirmation bias. d. the anchoring and adjustment heuristic. Answer: c Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-19 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 10 Topic: Psychology as a Science Skill: Conceptual 20) When people watch a debate, they often point out the internal contradictions, flaws in logic, and hypocrisy in positions they oppose while glossing over the same shortcomings for positions they support. This is an example of a. belief perseverance. b. the availability heuristic. c. healthy skepticism. d. confirmation bias. Answer: d Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-20 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 10 Topic: Psychology as a Science Skill: Conceptual 21) To believe that everyone admitted to a mental institution is necessarily crazy (or they wouldn’t be there) demonstrates a. belief perseverance. b. the availability heuristic. c. healthy skepticism. d. confirmation bias. Test Bank for Lilienfeld et al, Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding, 2ce 8 Answer: d Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-21 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 10 Topic: Psychology as a Science Skill: Conceptual 22) To believe that a ragged-looking man with a shopping cart is necessarily impoverished demonstrates a. belief perseverance. b. the availability heuristic. c. healthy skepticism. d. confirmation bias. Answer: d Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-22 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 10 Topic: Psychology as a Science Skill: Conceptual 23) According to your authors, ________ is the “mother of all biases.” a. the confirmation bias b. the availability heuristic c. belief perseverance d. the hindsight bias Answer: a Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-23 Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 10 Topic: Psychology as a Science Skill: Factual 24) Milo and Shirley are taking a trip on a cruise ship for their 20th wedding anniversary. They believe they made it to this milestone because they know each other so well. During the trip they take part in a game show where they find out they don't know each other as well as they thought. However, they still maintain they are very much in tune with the other's needs and thoughts. This is an example of a. the representativeness heuristic. b. the hindsight bias. c. belief perseverance. d. the availability heuristic. Test Bank for Lilienfeld et al, Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding, 2ce 9 Answer: c Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-24 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 10-11 Topic: Psychology as a Science Skill: Conceptual 25) Suppose a teacher hears from the principal at the start of the school year that an especially “weak” student will be admitted to their class. From September to October, the teacher indeed sees that this student struggles with assignments. In November, the principal states that the student admitted to the class was actually quite strong. But even after knowing this, the teacher still grades the student poorly. This is an example of a. the representativeness heuristic. b. the hindsight bias. c. belief perseverance. d. the availability heuristic. Answer: c Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-25 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 10-11 Topic: Psychology as a Science Skill: Conceptual 26) Suppose you hear that Mr. Banker was arrested for stealing money; to your friends, you have few good things to say about Mr. Banker. But at the trial, the charges are shown to be false. However, you are still suspicious and wary of Mr. Banker. This is an example of a. the representativeness heuristic. b. the hindsight bias. c. belief perseverance. d. the availability heuristic. Answer: c Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-26 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 10-11 Topic: Psychology as a Science Skill: Conceptual Test Bank for Lilienfeld et al, Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding, 2ce 10 27) Recall from your text that researchers gave students false feedback about their abilities to distinguish between false and real suicide notes. At the conclusion of the study, the researchers informed the students that their feedback was in no way related to their actual performance. However, on a subsequent task where the students had to estimate their performance on a similar task, they used this false feedback to guide their estimates. This is an example of a. belief perseverance. b. overconfidence. c. confirmation bias. d. the hindsight bias. Answer: a Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-27 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 10-11 Topic: Psychology as a Science Skill: Factual 28) Pretend that you are a participant in a study on deception detection, and after several trials, the experimenter gives you feedback that you are a ‘wizard’ at detecting deception and score better than the average student. You are then asked to complete a few more trials of deception judgments. At the end of the study, the experimenter tells you that the feedback was bogus and your performance was average and around the same level as everyone else who has participated in the study. Despite this, you are still convinced that you were better at determining when people were lying better than other participants. In this example, you would be engaging in a. confirmation bias. b. disinterestedness. c. belief perseverance. d. the disconfirmation bias. Answer: c Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-28 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 10-11 Topic: Psychology as a Science Skill: Conceptual 29) In science, a scientific theory is defined as a(n) a. personal understanding of natural laws. b. testable prediction about the natural world. c. explanatory device for scientific findings. d. educated opinion about the natural world. Test Bank for Lilienfeld et al, Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding, 2ce 11 Answer: c Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-29 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 8-9 Topic: Psychology as a Science Skill: Factual 30) Let’s suppose someone holds a door open for you and you wonder “do they have a crush on me?” So you start to observe their behaviour with others, to see if they hold others’ doors open or show courtesy and politeness in other circumstances. Your wonderment on the possibility of a crush is best thought of as a(n) a. theory. b. prediction. c. hypothesis. d. outcome. Answer: c Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-30 Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 9 Topic: Psychology as a Science Skill: Conceptual 31) In science, an explanatory device for scientific findings is called a(n) a. scientific theory. b. scientific hypothesis. c. empirical theory. d. rational theory. Answer: a Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-31 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 8-9 Topic: Psychology as a Science Skill: Factual 32) When a psychologist mentions the term scientific theory, he or she is referring to something that a. explains a single event. b. is no better an explanation than another person's opinion. c. refers to an educated guess. d. explains a wide range of observations. Test Bank for Lilienfeld et al, Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding, 2ce 12 Answer: d Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-32 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 8-9 Topic: Psychology as a Science Skill: Factual 33) To explain a wide range of observations, a psychologist might make mention to a(n) a. rational hypothesis. b. empirical hypothesis. c. empirical theory. d. scientific theory. Answer: d Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-33 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 8-9 Topic: Psychology as a Science Skill: Factual 34) If a psychologist were to develop a theory of cognitive development, he or she would want his or her theory to explain a ________ observations. a. substantial number of b. very few c. moderate number of d. small number of Answer: a Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-34 Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 8-9 Topic: Psychology as a Science Skill: Conceptual 35) A scientific theory is considered _____ if it explains a ________ number of observations. a. useful; large b. useful; small c. precise; large d. precise; small Answer: a Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-35 Test Bank for Lilienfeld et al, Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding, 2ce 13 Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 8-9 Topic: Psychology as a Science Skill: Conceptual 36) Despite the fact that scientific research has found no support or basis for the belief of “the hot hand” in baseball, basketball, or golf, the idea still persists among athletes, sports commentators, and fans. This is a classic example of a. belief perseverance. b. scientific illiteracy. c. the hindsight bias. d. gullibility. Answer: a Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-36 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 10-11 Topic: Psychology as a Science Skill: Conceptual 37) Which of the following categories involves claims that are always untestable (and therefore unfalsifiable)? a. Pseudoscience b. Metaphysics c. Science d. Both A and B are correct. Answer: b Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-37 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 11 Topic: Metaphysical Claims: The Boundaries of Science Skill: Factual 38) Unlike science and pseudoscience, metaphysics involves claims that are always a. unjustifiable. b. unfalsifiable. c. derived from rational thought. d. derived from empirical observation. Answer: b Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-38 Diff: 2 Test Bank for Lilienfeld et al, Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding, 2ce 14 Type: MC Page Ref: 11 Topic: Metaphysical Claims: The Boundaries of Science Skill: Factual 39) Who claimed that science and religion are entirely different and non-overlapping realms of understanding the world; so that science deals with testable claims about the natural world, whereas religion deals with untestable claims about moral values. a. Gould b. Popper c. Freud d. Skinner Answer: a Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-39 Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Ref: 11 Topic: Metaphysical Claims: The Boundaries of Science Skill: Factual 40) Claims that involve the existence of God, the soul, or afterlife, reflect ______________ claims that are _____________. a. religious claims; replicable b. metaphysical; unfalsifiable c. pseudoscientific; correlations d. scientific; risky predictions Answer: b Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-40 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 11 Topic: Metaphysical Claims: The Boundaries of Science Skill: Conceptual 41) Which of the following is not a metaphysical claim? a. People can communicate with individuals that have passed away. b. The existence of the afterlife has been proven by science. c. Meditation can help to alleviate stress responses. d. Astrological signs guide the events in the universe. Answer: c Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-41 Diff: 2 Type: MC Test Bank for Lilienfeld et al, Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding, 2ce 15 Page Ref: 11 Topic: Metaphysical Claims: The Boundaries of Science Skill: Conceptual 42) In research reports, we often see the terms “research suggests,” or “appears,” or “raises the possibility that” a finding is correct, but also acknowledges that we might be incorrect. Your authors refer to this as a. naïve realism. b. a prescription for humility. c. falsifiability. d. Occam’s razor. Answer: b Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-42 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 12 Topic: Recognizing That We Might Be Wrong Skill: Conceptual 43) According to the authors, ________ of the claims made by self-help proponents have been scientifically examined. a. roughly half b. many c. none d. few Answer: d Question ID: Lil 2ce 1.1-43 Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 13 Topic: The Amazing Growth of Popular Psychology Skill: Factual 44) Imagine that you see the textbook authors on television talking with Larry King about popular psychology. What point are you most likely to hear them make? a. Psychology and medicine often marginalise those with ideas that differ from conventional wisdom. b. Self-help therapies are rigorously tested before people can write books about them. c. All information from popular ...
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