Handout_3_116

Handout_3_116 - POPULATION GENETIC ISSUES IN CONSERVATION I...

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POPULATION GENETIC ISSUES IN CONSERVATION I. INTRODUCTION   A. WHAT IS GENETIC BIODIVERSITY?? At the most basic level we are concerned with the diversity of genes COMPONENTS of diversity:   1) Variability: how many different copies of a gene (alleles)   exist in a  populations  and   levels of heterozygosity,     2)Distribution: the geographic distribution of alleles and their frequency in  populations. 3) Divergence: how genetically different alleles are in sequence and function.  Tells us about the phylogenetic relationships of populations and for expressed  genes, adaptive context etc. B. WHY CONSERVE? 1. Affects an organisms ability to respond to future environmental changes. [ global warming,   pollution new parasites predators , etc.]. Options for  evolution. 2. Loss of variability associated with decline in fitness . Inbreeding  depression.  3.  Utilitarian needs : new  genes for crops and  plants and  animals.  C. THE THREATS TO GENETIC DIVERSITY.  1) HABITAT LOSS  and  2) HABITAT FRAGMENTATION     .     3) CONSEQUENCES a. Population size decreases b. Gene flow  no longer occurring metapopulations c. Genetic units no longer obvious 1
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4) EXAMPLES a Tatra Mountains Ibex b Dusky Seaside sparrow c. Tuatara lizards of New  Zealand.  Sphenodon .   punctatus punctatus and  Sphenodon .   punctatus guentheri.  So there are three primary questions we are concerned with-   1) the levels of variation within population 
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Handout_3_116 - POPULATION GENETIC ISSUES IN CONSERVATION I...

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