psych2 - October 10, 2007 Articles Americans who engaged in...

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October 10, 2007 Articles Americans who engaged in unhealthy behavior who helped them deal with STRESS Women are more stressed STRESS Our Changing Way of Life -100 years ago: leading causes of death were infectious diseases, such as influenza, tuberculosis, polio, typhoid fever, smallpox *none of above among major causes of death in developed countries -7 of 10 leading causes of death in U.S. related to personal habits and lifestyle *heart disease: 36% *cancer: 22% *stroke: 17% -psychological and social factors involved in many chronic diseases What is stress? -Thank you, physics: Metals resist moderate outside forces but lose their resiliency under greater pressure -unlike metals, humans can think and reason, and experience complex interactions of individual and environmental circumstances -psychological stress: response of individuals to stressors, circumstances, and events that threaten them and tax their coping abilities Sources of Stress: Personality Factors -cardiologists Friedman and Rosenman (1974): Noticed impatience of their patients -studied 3,000 healthy men between 35-59 over 8 years -one group had twice as many heart attacks; autopsies showed coronary arteries to be more obstructed Type A: excessively competitive, hard-driven, impatient, hostile Type B: relaxed, easygoing -further research showed association not as strong at F and R believed, but certain components linked to coronary risk -hostility most associated with coronary problems -“hot reactors”: intense physiological reaction to stress: heart race, breathing quickens, muscles tense up -hostility better predictor of coronary heart disease in older men than smoking, drinking, high caloric intake, or high LDL cholesterol -hardiness: personality style characterized by sense of commitment and control (vs. alienation and powerlessness) and perception of problems as challenges (not threats) -demonstrates importance of multiple factors -Chicago Stress Project: 5 year study of male business managers 32-65 *hardier men had less illness *even lower levels when combined with social support and exercise
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-personal control: real or perceived -relation to learned helplessness (Seligman) -control important for health of elderly -Rodin and Langer: Nursing home residents encouraged one group of nursing home residents to make their own choices: what they ate, when visitors could come, what moves to see, and who could come to their rooms *18 months later: more alert, more active, happier, and more likely to be alive than group encouraged to be dependent on the nursing staff Sources of Stress: Environmental Factors -major life events: death of close family member, incarceration, pregnancy, major transitions, severe injury or illness, marriage -daily hassles: boring or tense job, living in poverty, fights with friends, significant other -knowing about events doesn’t tell you how someone handles their problems -Cause and effect? -conflict: decide between incompatible options
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This note was uploaded on 05/23/2008 for the course PSYC 2 taught by Professor Watson,cary during the Fall '07 term at Santa Clara.

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psych2 - October 10, 2007 Articles Americans who engaged in...

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