5. Gender Revolution (England) - Gender & Society...

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Gender & SocietyThe online version of this article can be found at:DOI: 10.1177/08912432103614752010 24: 149Gender & SocietyPaula EnglandThe Gender Revolution : Uneven and StalledPublished by:On behalf of:Sociologists for Women in Societycan be found at:Gender & SocietyAdditional services and information for Email Alerts: Subscriptions: Reprints: Permissions: Citations: at Stanford University Libraries on August 24, 2011gas.sagepub.comDownloaded from
THE GENDER REVOLUTIONUneven and StalledPAULA ENGLANDStanford UniversityIn this article, the author describes sweeping changes in the gender system and offers explanations for why change has been uneven. Because the devaluation of activities done by women has changed little, women have had strong incentive to enter male jobs, but men have had little incentive to take on female activities or jobs. The gender egalitarianism that gained traction was the notion that women should have access to upward mobility and to all areas of schooling and jobs. But persistent gender essentialism means that most people follow gender-typical paths except when upward mobility is impossible otherwise. Middle-class women entered managerial and professional jobs more than working-class women inte-grated blue-collar jobs because the latter were able to move up while choosing a “female” occupation; many mothers of middle-class women were already in the highest-status female occupations. The author also notes a number of gender-egalitarian trends that have stalled.Keywords:education; race; class; gender; work/occupationsWe sometimes call the sweeping changes in the gender system since the 1960s a “revolution.” Women’s employment increased dramati-cally (Cotter, Hermsen, and England 2008); birth control became widely available (Bailey 2006); women caught up with and surpassed men in rates of college graduation (Cotter, Hermsen, and Vanneman 2004, 23); under-graduate college majors desegregated substantially (England and Li 2006); more women than ever got doctorates as well as professional degrees in law, medicine, and business (Cotter, Hermsen, and Vanneman 2004, 22-23; England et al. 2007); many kinds of gender discrimination in employment and education became illegal (Burstein 1989; Hirsh 2009); women entered AUTHOR’S NOTE:I thank Maria Charles, Shelley Correll, David Cotter, Myra Ferree, Joan Hermsen, Joya Misra, Cecilia Ridgeway, and Reeve Vanneman for comments and Karen Powroznik for research assistance.GENDER & SOCIETY, Vol. 24 No. 2, April 2010 149-166DOI: 10.1177/0891243210361475© 2010 Sociologists for Women in Society149Sociologists for Women in Society Feminist Lectureat Stanford University Libraries on August 24, 2011gas.sagepub.comDownloaded from
150 GENDER & SOCIETY / April 2010many previously male-dominated occupations (Cotter, Hermsen, and

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Term
Fall
Professor
JULIEALBRIGHT
Tags
Sociology, Stanford University Libraries, Gender Society

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