APUSH Unit 5 - Unit 5 Civil War and Reconstruction THE...

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Unit 5: Civil War and Reconstruction THE CIVIL WAR The Secession, Pt. 2 Following the Battle of Fort Sumter Jefferson Davis asks for 10,000 troops; Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina secede from the Union and enter the CSA (Confederate States of America) Southern Objectives: 1. Keep all of the Northern troops out of the South; want sovereignty Northern Objectives: 1. Create a naval blockade to prevent Southern trade with England 2. Physically split the South through divide and conquer tactic 3. Destroy the Southern railroad 4. Capture the new Southern capital of Richmond, VA 5. Complete conquest of the Southern spirit (following First Bull Run) The South during the war... Led by President Jefferson Davis and Vice President Alexander Stephens South forced to become more centralized in economy throughout the war; this change was not welcomed but was necessary in order to survive Passed a law saying that anyone owning or supervising 20 or more slaves was exempt from fighting in the Confederate army; the Yeomans were the only soldiers “A rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight” Food riots broke out, unity was affected, and many soldiers deserted Important Battles and Events: The First Battle of Bull Run (July 1861) Took place near a Manassas, Virginia stream called Bull Run First real battle of the Civil War Union General McDowell had more troops than Confederate General Beauregard , but Confederate General Stonewall Jackson saves the day and wins the battle for the South, boosting their morale and confidence This outcome alarms the North and leads to the creation of their fifth objective: to completely destroy the Southern spirit The Battle of Shiloh (April 1862) Took place in Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee; moved war south and west Confederate General Johnston wanted to defeat Union General Grant before he could be reinforced by Ohio’s army; attacked Grant’s camp at Shiloh church, but Johnston was killed in battle and replaced by General Beauregard
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Hornet’s Nest strategy: area of the field where Confederate troops repeatedly shelled Union troops over and over Ruggle’s Battery: Confederate General Ruggles assembled the largest battery of artillery ever seen, but it tired them out and they had to retreat Union General Buell saves Grant and overcomes the South Over 23,000 casualties occurred within this two-day period; one of the bloodiest battles in all of American history Peninsular Campaign (March-July 1862) Union’s plan to capture the Richmond, VA Peninsula at York and James Rivers Led by Head Union General George McClellan Moves Union “Potomac” army to the Yorktown Peninsula Ends in the inconclusive Battle of Seven Pines General Joseph Johnston hurt in battle; General Robert E. Lee becomes head of the Confederate army and defeats McClellan , effectively ending their campaign Lincoln is so upset that he fired McClellan and makes John Pope head general
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