solution-manual-electronic-devices-conventional-current-version-9th-edition-floyd - Chapter 1 Introduction to Electronics Section 1-1 Atomic Structure 1


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1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Electronics Section 1-1 Atomic Structure1.An atom with an atomic number of 6 has 6 electronsand 6 protons. 2. The third shell of an atom can have 2n2= 2(3)2= 18 electrons. Section 1-2 Materials Used in Electronics 3.The materials represented in Figure 121 in the textbook are(a) insulator (b) semiconductor (c) conductor 4.An atom with four valence electrons is a semiconductor. 5. In a silicon crystal, each atom forms fourcovalent bonds. Section 1-3 Current in Semiconductors6.When heat is added to silicon, more free electrons and holes are produced. 7.Current is produced in silicon at the conduction band and the valenceband. Section 1-4 N-Type and P-Type Semiconductors 8.Doping is the carefully controlled addition of trivalent or pentavalent atoms to pure (intrinsic) semiconductor material for the purpose of increasing the number of majority carriers (free electrons or holes). 9.Antimony is a pentavalent (donor) material used for doping to increase free electrons. Boron is a trivalent (acceptor) material used for doping to increase the holes. Section 1-5 The PN Junction 10.The electric field across the pnjunction of a diode is created by donor atoms in the nregion losing free electrons to acceptor atoms in the pregion. This creates positive ions in the n region near the junction and negative ions in the pregion near the junction. A field is then established between the ions. 11. The barrier potential of a diode represents an energy gradient that must be overcome by conduction electrons and produces a voltage drop, not a source of energy.
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2 Chapter 2 Diode Applications Section 2-1 Diode Operation1.To forward-bias a diode, the positive terminal of a voltage source must be connected to the pregion.2. A series resistor is needed to limit the currentthrough a forward-biased diode to a value that will not damage the diode because the diode itself has very little resistance. Section 2-2 Voltage-Current Characteristic of a Diode 3.To generate the forward bias portion of the characteristic curve, connect a voltage source across the diode for forward bias and place an ammeter in series with the diode and a voltmeter across the diode. Slowly increase the voltage from zero and plot the forward voltage versus the current. 4.A temperature increase would cause the barrier potential of a silicon diode to decrease from 0.7 V to 0.6 V. Section 2-3 Diode Models 5. (a) The diode is reverse-biased. (b) The diode is forward-biased. (c) The diode is forward-biased. (d) The diode is forward-biased. 6.(a) VR= 5 V 8 V = 3 V(b) VF= 0.7 V(c) VF= 0.7 V(d) VF= 0.7 V7.(a) VR= 5 V 8 V = 3 V(b) VF= 0 V(c) VF= 0 V(d) VF= 0 V8.Ignoring Rr: (a) VR5 V 8 V = 3 V(b) IF= 100 V0.7 V560 10  = 174 mA VF= IFdr+ VB= (174 mA)(10 ) + 0.7 V =2.44 V
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Chapter 2 3 (c) Itot= 30 V30 V4.85 ktotR= 6.19 mA IF= 6.19 mA2= 3.1 mA VF= IFdr+ 0.7 V = (3.1 mA)(10 ) + 0.7 V = 0.731 V(d) Approximately all of the current from the 20 V source is through the diode. No current from the 10 V source is through the diode.
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