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Zoology_Notes[1] - Zoology Notes Characterizing Life...

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Zoology Notes Characterizing Life Zoology science dealing with or relating to study of LIVING animals What is life? What does it mean to be alive, to be living? Reproduce? Fire can reproduce! Must have ALL 5 CHARACTERISTICS! (page 2) 1. Organization 2. Metabolism 3. Homeostasis 4. Reproduction/Growth 5. Adaptation/Irritability (chart on page 3) MEMORIZE! Emergent Property “A quality that appears as biological complexity increases.” 2 Laws of Thermodynamics 1. Energy cannot be created or destroyed (energy of the universe is constant) 2. Every process increases the entrophy of the universe (entrophy- measure of disorder) Does Life Break These Laws????? NO! Organisms are open systems Taking in oxygen, gives off heat, and maintain life! Metabolism- “chemical reactions within cells that maintain life” Message: Organisms maintain order at the expense of increased entrophy of their surroundings.
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Producers Extract energy from nonliving environment Consumers Obtain energy and nutrients by eating other organisms Decomposers Consumers that obtain nutrients from dead organisms and organic wastes. Our body is like a thermostat (air conditioning system) , always fighting the change Irritability “an immediate response to a stimulus-often related to survival” Adaptation “an INHERITED trait that enables an organism to successfully reproduce in a given environment” Natural Selection Enhanced survival and reproductive success of certain individuals from a population based on inherited characteristics. #6 in packet Individual does NOT evolve…only evolves in generations! Diversity of Life ALL life (on Earth) is made of 1 or more cells All cells Have similar chemical makeup and processes Have DNA that uses the same genetic code (ACTG) Have ribosomes (protein factories) Have a plasma (cell) membrane Acquire nutrients and expel wastes What forms of life do we know? 18 th Century 2 Kingdoms: Animals and Plants (invented binomial nomenclature)
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Haeckel -1866 3 Kingdoms: Animals, Plants, Protista ……all “simple” life forms Whittaker (1969) 5 Kingdoms 1. Monera: all prokaryotes (bacteria) 2. Protista: algae, protozoans, diatoms 3. Fungi: yeasts, mushrooms 4. Animalia: all animals 5. Plantae: all plants Woese Llate (1970’s) 3 Domains based on genetic (rRNA) analysis 2 Domains (Archaea and Bacteria) contain only prokaryotes (Eukarya) contains everything else!-have nuclei *Figure 1.7* Viruses Not living Living No active metabolism Continually Evolve Not Cells NO VIRUS CELLS Bacteria that cause tooth decay? Bacteria Tapeworms? Animalia, Eukraya Mistletoe? Plantae HIV? All of the above There is Unity of Diverse 1.5 million species named Estimated diversity 5-30 million From cells down all life is similar
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Taxonomy- Classification of organisms on the basis of evolutionary relationships or branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying organisms.
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