Chapter 19 – From War to PeaceSection NotesPostwar HavocA New Economic EraThe Harding and Coolidge PresidenciesVideoFrom War to Peace ImagesEuropean Immigration, 1890–1930Consumer CulturePolitical Cartoon: Teapot Dome ScandalPolitical Cartoon: Red Scare Quick FactsEffects of World War IVisual Summary: From War to Peace History Close-upAutos Drive the Modern Age
The Main IdeaAlthough the end of World War I brought peace, it did not ease the minds of many Americans, who found much to fear in postwar years.Reading Focus•What were the causes and effects of the first Red Scare?•How did labor strife grow during the postwar years?•How did the United States limit immigration after World War I?Postwar Havoc
100 Percent Americanism•The end of World War I brought great rejoicing but also many problems.–An influenza epidemic from Europe had spread to the U.S., killing more than half a million Americans.–Farms and factories that had prospered during war years closed down as demand for products fell.–Returning soldiers had trouble finding work.•The emotional turmoil had disturbing political effects, as wartime patriotism turned to hatred of Germans.•These sentiments gave rise to a movement known as 100 Percent Americanism, which celebrated all things American while attacking all ideas, and people, it viewed as foreign or anti-American.
The Red ScareRise of the Bolsheviks•Americans worried about a new enemy.•The Bolsheviks, a revolutionary group led by Vladimir I. Lenin, gained control of Russia during World War I.•Five years later Russia became part of a new nation called the Soviet Union.•The Bolsheviks wanted communism, a new social system without economic classes or private property. •Lenin believed all people should share equally in society’s wealth.•Soviets called for the overthrow of capitalism and predicted communism would inspire workers to rise up and crush it.American Reaction•Many Americans were frightened by communism.•Americans embraced capitalism and feared a rise of the working class.•The picture of “the Hun,” a German symbol, Americans focused hatred on during WWI, was replaced by a new target: communists, known as Reds.•Communist parties formed in the U.S. after the war, some advocating violent overthrow of the government.•A Red Scare, or widespread fear of communism, gripped the nation.
Plots, Laws, and Raids•Radical communists might have been behind a failed 1919 plot, in which bombs were mailed to government officials, including U.S. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, a former Progressive.•Though the communism threat was probably not very great, the government took it seriously.