HIST 103 - HIST 103 Continuity and Change Saint Peter as...

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HIST 103 29/08/2007 14:57:00 Continuity and Change… Saint Peter as first pope 3 orders of society (the medieval inheritance: structures of society)/ pyramid the people who prayed the people who fought the people that worked o peasants o urban workers the people who prayed were considered the most important even though the  people who fought probably had most influence on the people, etc. even the people who  fought wouldn’t consider themselves the most important.  THOSE WHO PRAYED POPE o Head of roman catholic church o Ideally, only one  o Seculary clergy CARDINALS o Appointed o Secular clergy o (college of cardinals select the pope) ARCHBISHOPS o Appointed
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o Secular clergy BISHOPS/ URBAN PRIESTS o Appointed o Secular clergy MONKS/CLERKS o Often most learned o Monks REGULAR clergy/ secluded o Clerks SECULAR clergy RURAL PARIST PRIESTS o Often least learned o Secular clergy The People who Fight 2 nd  most important group have two jobs o protect people militarily o manage the land and estates, portion food, etc. king nobility princes, dukes, earls, lords (and their wives ad children) knights who received an honorary title for military service did not necessarily own land
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peasants – 94-98% of population feudal relationship to nobles those who worked, urban mayor guild masters long distance merchants/ bankers guilded craftsmen/ merchants journeymen apprentices Turning Points of the 15 th  Century 1. Medici rule beings in Florence, 1434 2. Lorenzo Valla Announces the Donation of Constantine is a forgery, 1440 3. Gutenberg uses moveable-type printing, 1450 4. End of the Hundred Years War, 1453 5. Fall of Constantinople to the Turks, 1453 1. Medici rule begins in Florence, 1434 Cosimo de’Medici (1389-1434-1464) Signoria Lorenzo the Magnificent (1440-1478-1492) Machiavelli, The Prince
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Platonic Academy of Florence Marsilio Ficino 2. Lorenzo Valla announces the Donation of Constantine is a Forgery, 1440 Lorenzo Valla (1406-1457) Humanism Emporer Constantine Fief (someone who serves and overlord) o Package of land, people, and property of which you bse your wealth Pope Nicholas V Vatican * Donation of Constantine is a document where Constantine gives most of the  land to the pope
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29/08/2007 14:57:00 IV. End of the Hundred Years War, 1453 Beginning of war – 1337 Charles IV of France (d. 1337) Battle of Agincourt (1415) Loss of Bordeaux (1451) Calais Longbow During the 100 years war, development of military technologies, changed the  balance of power or different countries. 
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