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Fundamentals Exam #21. Factors affecting bowel elimination- Age:-Infants: small stomach capacity and less digestive enzymes-Children: can’t control defecation until 2-4 years of age-Older adults: less saliva, decreased chewing, reduced esophageal motility, decrease in stomach acid, fewer absorptive cells in small intestine, weaker muscles, decreased peristalsis2. Diet- list certain foods and their effects on the bowels:Cabbage, onions, bananas, cauliflower all give you gas; bran, prunes, figs and alcohol all help you poop; cheese, pasta, eggs and lean meat make you constipated3. What does a bland diet consist of?4. How does fight or flight affect bowels?5. How does bed rest affect bowels?6. Fluid?7. Activity?8. Psychological issues?9. Position?10. How does pregnancy affect bowels?11. What is paralytic ileus?12. What are laxatives?13. Cathartics?14. Other medications that affect the bowels (antibiotics, NSAIDs, iron, anticholinergics, aspirin):Antibiotics lead to diarrhea; NSAIDs like ibuprofen cause constipation; iron causes constipation and black stools; anticholinergics (Benadryl) dries it out and causes constipation; aspirin can
cause bleeding ulcers and therefore bloody stools15. Diagnostic testing that might affect bowels:Barium would cause diarrhea to clean things out; NPO would cause dehydration and constipation16. Constipation:Decrease in bowel movements with difficult passage of hard, dry stools17. Is constipation a symptom or disease?18. What does it mean when someone is vasovagal?19. What is impaction?20. S/S of impaction:Cramping, bloating, leakage, passing excessive amounts of gas21. Treatment for impaction:DRE or oil retention illness, cleansing enemas, suppositories and stool softeners