Discussion%20Section%208%20Answers - Discussion Section #8...

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Discussion Section #8 November 26 th , 2007 TA: Michael Fiedler 1. What does it mean to be metastatic? What is angiogenesis? How are these terms related in cancer biology? Metastatic means that a tumor has accumulated the mutations to expand beyond it’s primary location and can spread throughout the body. Angiogenesis is the process of blood vessel development. If a tumor can accumulate the mutations to recruit blood vessels, or undergo angiogenesis, then it can stay alive long enough for the tumor to accumulate the mutations to become metastatic. 2. Why is cancer so difficult to treat? What are good drug targets for cancer? Cancer is hard to treat because it is a disease of the body in the sense that the body’s cells are mutated. It is therefore difficult to distinguish between cancer cells and healthy cells. Cancer is also continually adapting to treatments and there are an endless amount of cancers so each one requires a specific treatment approach. Good targets for cancer drugs are cell cycle process: DNA synthesis, protein translation, TF inhibitors, angiogenesis. 3. What is the plant model organism? What fundamental difference between plants and animals results in vast differences in development? What is the main governing factor controlling plant development? Arabidopsis thalinana . Plants cannot move so their cell differentiation and development is completely dependent on their environment. They require sunlight and respond to it using photoreceptors. 4. What is a developmental difference between mammalian cells and plant cells? What implications does this have for maternal/paternal contribution? How do plants control cell differentiation? Not all mammalian cells are totipotent, only stem cells are. All plant cells are totipotent. Because all cells can become anyother cells in plants, they do not require contribution of proteins, mRNAs, or other cellular material to kick start development. They control differentiation similar to mammals, using hormones. 5.
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Discussion%20Section%208%20Answers - Discussion Section #8...

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