21.Use descriptive statistics to summarize the data and comment on your findings.Listed below are the descriptive statistics to be used in making statistical inferencesregarding the proportion of business students at Bayview University who were involved insome type of cheating.The aim of the descriptive statistics is to quantitatively summarize the main featuresof the collection of data. We are given the sample size of the students who participated in thesurvey. We have the response of interest and the frequency in which it appears in each of thequestions being asked in the survey. For example 16 respondents answer “yes” to thequestion “did you ever present work copied off the internet as your own?” The sampleproportion gives us a summary of the percentage of respondents who answered yes to thequestion. For example 18% of the responders answered yes to the question “did you everpresent work copied from the internet as your own?” The confidence interval for all samplesis 95%, and the level of significance is 5%The level of significance as it applies here will tellus the probability of making a Type I error. The z value is the test statistic for the hypothesistest about the population proportion. And the standard error indicates how close the sample
3mean is from the true population. The descriptive statistics are consistent and summarize thedata for all three questions in much the same way as described above. The difference beingin the number of responders, who answered yes to the questions: “Did you ever copy answersoff another student's exam? And, did you ever collaborate with other students on projects thatwere supposed to be completed individually?” For example there were 18 responders whoanswered yes to copying answers off another student’s exam, and there were 29 students whoanswered yes to collaborating with students on projects that were supposed to have beendone individually. Because there was a difference in the number of responders who said yesto the first question, and to the second and third, the sample proportions vary. The sampleproportion is simply the number of students who answer yes to a question divided by thecount, or the number of participants in the survey. For example in answering the firstquestion, there were 16 students who answered yes, and there were 90 participants. Thesample proportion is 16/90 or .18, or 18%. The z value can be obtained by dividing the alphaby 2 to get z.025 and then by looking it up in the value worksheet we see that the z value is1.960, or we can use excel to compute the z value by entering the formula = norm.s.inv andinput the appropriate information. For this example we use norm.s.inv (.05/2). To find thestandard error we take the square root of the (sample proportion times (1-the sampleproportion) and divide it by the sample size).