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Discussion%206%20answers-1 - MCDB 120 Section#6 November 7...

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MCDB 120 Section #6 November 7, 2007 TA: Michael Fiedler 1. Give 5 examples of a “model organism”? What is the advantage of each and why are they utilized? Drosophila Melanogaster (fly) – cheap, grow fast, genetics are easily manipulated, good for general embryogenesis Xenopus (frogs) – generate tons of oocytes, can undertake in vitro fertilization, oocytes are large making them easily manipulated Mice – mammalian homolog that has very similar development to humans C. elegans – cheap, grow fast, easily manipulated genetically, relatively small genome (959 genes), relatively simple phenotypes (vulvaless, too many vulvas, uncoordinated) Chick – large embryo, easily manipulated, analogous to human development (germ layers) 2. What are the 3 main germ layers and what tissues result from each? Ectoderm – brain, nervous system, lens of eye Mesoderm – skeletal system, gonads, muscles, outer coverings of internal organs Endoderm – inner linings of gut, respiratory tract, liver, pancreas, thyroid 3. Give an example of a developmental program in bacteria Spore formation. Bacteria usually simply divide equally into 2 cells but in response to an environmental stimulus can divide asymmetrically. Can create an inner (spore) cell and an outer (mother) cell. The mother cell provides an outer covering for the spore so that it can protect itself from the environment and survive for millions of years. 4. What varies among cells/cell types? Cytoplasm? Nucleus? Why is this important? The nucleus among cells is equivalent, genetic material in all cells is identical. However, the proteins and the RNAs that the nucleus encodes for generates varying cytoplasmic environments that can potentially distinguish one cell from another.
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