Unformatted text preview: 7: MOTIVATION and EMOTION States of Motivation-‐ •
• instinct, hereditary responses (birds flying south) rooted in emotion drives and incentives, drive reduction theory: psychological needs -‐> drive to meet needs. Wan to restore homeostasis (balance of body temperature, diet, etc). incentives are external stimuli that motivate behavior (smell of bread -‐> hungry) optimum arousal, nothing horrible but nothing too wonderful either/ avoid stimuli that are both too boring and too arousing (Yerkes-‐Dodson Law) priorities among needs, Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs-‐ fundamental needs pyramid Hunger-‐ how do we know we are hungry? feedback from stomach, intestines, liver. Brain monitors glucose lateral hypothalamus: initiates hunger (make full animal hungry) ventromedial hypothalamus: suppresses hunger (stimulation= stop eating) Taste Preferences-‐ •
• body chemistry factors like stress, anxiety, etc lead to cravings for starchy, carbohydrate filled foods experience factors like conditioning, taste aversion, etc cultural factors evolutionary factors, don’t eat the red berries Eating problems: overeating-‐ eating when the body does not need additional energy. Can lead to obesity: as determined by Body Mass Index (BMI>30) reasons for obesity include: •
• • Personality, certain personality characteristics Genetics, studies show variations in weight as much as 70% hereditary. Gene “OB” controls release of leptin: hormone released by fat cells (leptin and fat cells positively correlated) may serve to maintain constant level of body fat **obese have defective OB gene Environment, environmental factors encourage overeating MCDONALDS Eating Disorders-‐ compulsion to eat (or not to eat) that disrupts physical and/or mental health • • Anorexia nervosa: refusal to maintain even low normal weight, intense fear of gaining weight. Marked by body image distortion and obsessive thinking about food. Most common among adolescents, 9/10 cases are female “I had an extra piece of broccoli and was up all night worrying about it.” Bulimia Nervosa: recurrent episodes to binge eating, following by some attempt to prevent weight gain. Purging type (with intentional vomiting, laxatives) or non-‐
purging type (with fasting, extensive exercise). Most common among women in late teens, early twenties Sexual Motivation-‐ hormones like androgen for men (including testosterone) and estrogen for women. The Need to Belong -‐>loneliness -‐> social exclusion: being shunned, avoided, receiving silent treatment, etc involved in school shootings? Virginia Tech and Columbine, but we blame media like Marylyn Manson we blame society, psychopathology, depression, etc Motivation at Work-‐ Industrial-‐Organizational Psychology: application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplace Emotion-‐ a subjective positive or negative reaction to a perceived or remembered object, event, or circumstance (positive and negative may occur at the same time). All emotional stats are a product of combinations of basic emotions •
• Approach emotions (love, happiness) left frontal lobe Withdrawal emotions (fear, disgust) right frontal lobe Catharsis: emotional release intended to relieve aggressive urges “venting” Impact Bias: tendency to overestimate long-‐term impact of emotional events, underestimate ability to adapt **lottery winners and paraplegics are equally happy within 5 years James-‐Lange Theory of Emotion: idea that emotion is the awareness of physiological state in response to emotion-‐inducing stimulus (smile, brain says oh we must be happy) Cannon-‐Bard Theory of Emotion: simultaneous experience of emotion and physiological arousal, one does not cause the other Two-‐Factor Theory of Emotion: middle ground between early theories. Like James-‐Lange in that emotion from awareness of physiological, like Cannon-‐Bard in that emotions are physiologically similar, need to be cognitively labeled step 1 physical arousal/ step 2 assign cognitive label to emotion (interpretation) Lie Detection-‐ traditionally dependent on whether someone can carry an egg on a spoon or if rice is damp after waiting in mouth, now the Polygraph: “lie detector” machine which measures a variety of physiological responses associated with emotional arousal (blood pressure, pulse, respiration rate) • • Control Question test: asked control question which generally address questionable behavior (have you taken something that wasn’t yours?) also asked relevant questions which address specific behavior under investigation then compare. Theory is that innocent has strongest reactions to control questions, while guilty has strongest emotional reactions to relevant questions Guilty Knowledge test: alternative to control question test. Used when info about even is available which only guilty person would know, series of questions constructed only one of which is correct detail (do you know it was at a shopping mall, do you know it was at a restaurant, a school?) told to answer no every time, if event happened at school then they will have to lie, etc Unit 8: Personality • Personality: an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting • Traits vs. situationism • Traits = relatively consistent characteristics exhibited in different situations. • Situationism = a view of personality that regards behavior as a function of the situation, not entirely of internal traits. • This is why astrology does not work – traits can be universal, and each of us wants to see ourselves in a positive light. • The Compromise = Interactionism = each individual’s personality is a product of both our unique traits and our situations. • Sigmund Freud • Background • Austrian neurologist who develops interest in nervous disorders • Anno O. = treated for hysteria by Freud and partner; elicits connections between mental and physical health • The Unconscious (iceberg analogy) • Unconscious = collection of unacceptable thoughts, wishes, desires, feelings, and memories (according to Freud) leads to psychoanalysis • Psychoanalysis = a hydraulic theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts. • Uncovering the Unconscious: • Free association: respond to stimuli with first thoughts in order to uncover unconsciousness • Projective tests: personality tests using ambiguous stimuli in order to produce a projection of inner conflicts. • • Exps = Rorschach tests and Thematic Apperception Tests Psychoanalytic Theory • Personality is simply the conflict between the unconscious and the conscious mind. • There are three components: • id: entirely unconscious; driven by the pleasure principle that demands immediate gratification – dominate in young kids • Superego: Large part is unconscious; immediate ideals, morals and ethics that develop around age 4-‐5 • Ego: most conscious mind; mediates the id and the superego; driven by the reality principle which seeks to gratify the id in ways acceptable to the superego. • Stages of Psychosexual Development • Patients symptoms rooted in conflicts from childhood • Phallic stage from ages 3-‐6 – includes the Oedipus complex, castration anxiety for boys and the Electra complex, penis envy for girls. • Dealing with Anxiety • Use defense mechanisms = methods of reducing anxiety through the unconscious distorting of reality. • • Exps: regression, projection, reaction formation, sublimation Neo-‐Freudians • Two critical modifications to Freud’s ideals: • More emphasis on conscious mind • Sex and aggression are no longer the complete focus • Carl Jung • Developed a working relationship with Freud and validated his ideas. However, he developed some changes: • Jung’s personal unconscious (like Freud) and the collective unconscious ( a reservoir of experiences, religious, spiritual, and mythological symbols within our species – a human fabric to which we all ascribe) • Theory of synchronicity: two or more events co-‐occur for a reason – meaningful coincidences. • Evaluating Psychoanalysis • The Bad : • Scientific, evidential shortcomings. • Cannot predict behaviors, merely explain them post-‐hoc. • People develop over their entire lives and have many biological complexities that may explain behavior beyond the unconscious. • The Good: • Introduces the idea of an unconscious mind • Provides a possible defense against anxiety • Forced humans to further confront their place within the universe, and within themselves ! ! The Trait Personality In the early 20th Century, there were two psychological backgrounds: "
Freudian psychoanalysis (chiefly negative) •
Skinnian behaviorism (bogged down in mechanics of the mind) •
Gordon Allport "
Founder of personality psychology •
Personality should be based on traits. •
3 Main Approaches: "
Lexical Approach: Variations in language indicate important traits. •
o Words go through natural selection. This is seen through synonym frequency (how many words for beautiful there are) and cross-‐cultural universality (overlap between languages). Statistical A
pproach: A large number of people rate personality items. •
o Factor analysis is a procedure that identifies clusters of items that relate, but not with other clusters. Theoretical Approach: theory dictates which traits are important to •
measure Taxonomies of Personality Five Factor Model "
Openness: vaguely demonstrates creativity as well as willingness to •
explore Conscientiousness: organizational tendencies •
Extraversion: social engagements •
Agreeableness: concern with cooperation •
Neuroticism: tendency to be anxious and insecure •
Research on Big Five "
Generally stable throughout life. •
o Neuroticism, extraversion, and openness drop after college. o Agreeableness and conscientiousness rise after college. Cultural Universality of Big Five: Pervasive in essentially all cultures. There is some variation in extraversion. Predictions "
Morning People: more conscientious •
Evening People: more extraverted •
Birth Order and Personality Variation of influences both hormonal and behaviorial (older sibling "
effects younger greatly). Personal Control: Whether we learn to see ourselves as having control of environment External versus internal locus (outside forces or our own efforts). "
Learned Helplessness: People learned to feel and act vulnerably in "
repeated trauma. Optimism v
ersus Pessimism greatly determines one’s own path. "
! Unit 9: Intelligence What is Intelligence? • Intelligence: the ability to learn from experiences, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations. • Is Intelligence one ability or several specific abilities? Traditional view: General Intelligence – “g” • General Intelligence: an underlying factor that determines your ability to do things o Charles Spearman " Factor Analysis: breaking IQ test results into clusters to determine general intelligence Evolutionary value of “g” – Kanazawa • “g” evolved to cope with novel problems • Correlated with ability to solve new problems, not correlated with familiarity situations Contemporary View: Multiple Intelligences • Intelligence is specific to certain areas, but having high intelligence in one area does not mean you have it in others o Howard Gardner 8 (9) kinds of Intelligence 1. Linguistic 2. Logical – Mathematical 3. Naturalist 4. Spatial 5. Bodily – kinesthetic 6. Musical 7. Interpersonal 8. Intrapersonal 9. (Existential?) Sternberg Triarchic Theory: 1. Analytic Intelligence: Intelligence tests, problems with right answers 2. Creative Intelligence: Reacting adaptively to novel situations 3. Practical Intelligence: Everyday, ill-‐defined tasks with multiple possible answers Emotional Intelligence? • Ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions • Izard (2001): Showed 5/9 year old kids ability to recognize emotions o More successful when 9 years old = emotional intelligence develops later in childhood • 4 Components Test o Perceiving emotions: recognize in faces, music, and stories o Understanding emotions: predict emotions, how they change and blend o Managing emotions: controlling, expressing emotions in various situations o Using emotions in adaptive and creative ways Better scores on Emotional Intelligence = better jobs, higher quality interactions with other people Intelligence and Creativity • Creativity: the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas o A different way of thinking, not super high intelligence • General positive correlation between Intelligence and Creativity Intelligence – Convergent thinking (closing in on a single right answer) Creativity – Divergent thinking (imagining multiple possible answers) Steinberg: 5 components of creativity • Expertise in an area: well developed base of knowledge • Imaginative thinking skills: ability to detect patters, make connections, see things in novel ways • Venturesome personality: tolerant of ambiguity and risk, perseverance in face of obstacles • Intrinsic Motivation: motivated by internal drive, challenge, satisfaction, rather than external forces • Creative Environment: surrounded by colleagues who mentor, challenge, support. Intelligence and the Brain • +.4 correlation between brain volume and intelligence scores • Speed correlated with IQ score, higher intelligence = faster brain waves… Assessing Intelligence • Tests must be broad enough to cover the many domains of intelligence • Assumptions: o Intellectual development some for all kids but faster for some than others • Measured mental age and judged against actual age to determine IQ o
o Original formula: 100 x (mental age/chronological age) Average IQ by definition 100 The Innate IQ • Stanford-‐Binet: Common IQ test today • Lewis Terman: worked with government to label people with IQ’s, bad thing. Test Construction 1. Standardization: Defining meaningful scores relative to protested group. a. Typically creates a normal distribution b. Flynn Effects: global improvements on intelligence scores over the past 10 years 2. Reliable: How consistent are the test results? a. Test-‐Retest: Does the person score about the same when retaking the test? b. Split-‐Half: When the test is split in two, does the person score the same on both halves of the test? c. Higher correlations = higher reliability 3. Validity: Does the test measure what it’s supposed to measure? a. Criterion validity: Does the test agree with some other criterion of performance? b. Higher IQ correlated with higher GPA, better jobs, stable relationships, less jail time Does not mean low IQ’s mean poor performance in these areas I.
Mental Retardation A.
3 Criteria to be mentally retarded: 1. I.Q. score of 70 or below. 2. significant limitations in everyday life (2 or more domains). 3. Present since childhood. *Important note! Retardation DOES NOT mean inability to learn or perform well. ~ islands of intelligence: areas in which mentally retarded people perform remarkably well 4. Williams Syndrome: combo of mental retardation and islands of intelligence. a) often have large vocabularies and abnormal thickening of cortical areas, involved with language. A. Causes of Mental retardation: Common examples 1. Genetic causes a. Down syndrome = most common. Fragile X syndrome, autism etc. 2. Environmental a. problems during pregnancy (fetal alcohol syndrome) or at birth (prematurity). Also, after birth (childhood disease). II. The Gifted A. Criteria: people with I.Q. of 135 or above. B. Unclear causes, possibly biological. C. Problems: A. “in a different world” has mixed evidence: sometimes socially awkward, but often just solitary or introverted. B. often correlated with perfectionism. Though oddly, underachievement. I.
Good things: A. high reasoning ability, creativity, curiosity, vocabulary, memory. B. Question authority, independent thinkers. C. Academically successful. I. Influences on Intelligence A. Genetics 1.adoption studies show that children who are adopted often have IQ scores closer to biological parents. 2. Identical twins. A. Environment 1. Races are remarkably identical, genetically. 2. Race is not a neatly defined thing. 3. Size of Flynn effect: gap between 1930s populations and current pop is identical to gap between black/white IQ scores. 4. Different backgrounds. 5. The things that matter in race gap: SES. Socioeconomic status is family income, parental education level, parental occupation etc. (SES and IQ is positively correlated.) I.
Gender and Intelligence 1.There are fewer differences then there are similarities. But, the differences that lead to a female advantage: a. Better spellers, better verbal fluency, better nonverbal memory, less likely to underachieve (less likely to be in special ed.), slightly better at rapid math. 2. Male advantage: a. Better at math, problem solving, special tasks. 3. There are 2 types of bias on IQ tests: a. Do IQ tests rely o cultural knowledge? b. Is the test less valid for some groups the others? (scientific bias). I.
Bias on Intelligence Testing A. Is it possible that the bias is in the administration and not construction? B. Stereotypes about IQ: 1. socially shared beliefs about a group and it’s individual members. **Stereotype threat: Steele and Aronson (1995) -‐ stereotypes “in the air” may affect performance of stigmatized. Bottom line: Stereotype threat is a general psychological process that can affect and group for whom negative stereotype exists. A. Steps from stereotype to performance: 1. awareness of stereotype causes self threat 1. self-‐threat causes increased concern about confirming stereotype 2. concern causes poorer performance. Unit 10: Psychological Disorders Characteristics of Psychological Disorders (will be referred to as P.D.’s) - Deviant = violation of group norms - Distressful = discontent with life o Sometimes people aren’t good judges of their own behavior though… - Dysfunctional = disruption of everyday functioning Explanations of P.D.’s - Hippocrates’ four humors - Ancient Egypt o Had first psychiatric text, mental hospital, and mental physicians - Middle Ages o Witches! " Malleus Maleficarum = hand book to diagnose witches o Evil Spirits " Trepanation = drilling holes in skull to allow spirits to escape " Exorcisms - Advent of Asylums o Offer shelter and support but had poor living conditions - Medical Model = physical causes for mental disorders, but doesn’t look at environment Biopsychosocial Approach – modern approach (nature AND nurture) - Classifying P.D.’s o Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM – IV) " 5 Axes • Axis 1: Clinical Syndrome • Axis 2: Personality Disorders or Mental Retardation • Axis 3: General Medical Disorders • Axis 4: Psychosocial Environmental Problems • Axis 5: Global Assessment of Functioning (scale from 1 – 100) " Profile/portrait of patient " Pros • Standardized diagnosis and treatment • Fairly reliable " Cons • Diagnostic criteria includes everyday behaviors o Where do you draw the line? • Labeling more disorders = more mental illness Labeling Psychological Disorders - Top-‐down processing o Rosenhan (1973): 8 psychologically healthy people admitted to mental hospitals o Labels create stereotype of violence " but people with P.D.’s are more likely to be victims than perpetrators Anxiety - State of fear with apprehension, tension, and dread o Behavioral Response: Avoid feared situation, impaired speech/motor functioning Physiological Response: increased heart and breathing rate, blood pressure, and muscle tension - Anxiety Disorders o characterized by distressing, persisted anxiety, or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety " most common class of disorders o General Anxiety Disorder (GAD) " Persistent state of tension, apprehension, diffuse anxiety • Continually waiting for something bad to happen " Secondary Anxiety: Fear of repercussions of disorder " ...
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- Fall '15
- Mr. Blake