Chapter 13 Handouts - 12/13/2007 Addiction Anything can be...

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Unformatted text preview: 12/13/2007 Addiction „ Anything can be addicting „ „ ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOR „ „ COMPULSIVE,UNCONTROLLABLE BEHAVIOR „ „ „ Drug „ Any substance that alters your ability to function „ „ „ „ „ Use, misused, tolerance, abuse Prescription, p , overover-the the--counter Illegal May lead to physical and psychological dependence Any drug can be misused and abused Chemical dependency Work Shopping opp g Eating Television Internet Exercise Illegal Drugs „ „ „ 60% of world’s production consumed in US Estimated 15 million use E h year Americans Each A i spend d more than th $100 billion Drugs and Dependence „ Marijuana „ Most widely used illegal drug in US 46% of Americans between 18 and 25 have smoked 42% of Americans 26 and older have smoked Small doses „ Larger doses „ „ „ „ „ „ Sedative effect Physical and psychic changes Regular uses become physically and psychologically addicted 1 12/13/2007 Drugs and Dependence „ Cocaine „ „ „ „ Between 1 and 1.5 million Americans use 96% are previous marijuana users Light g to o moderate od a use u associated a o a d with feelings g of pleasure and wellwell-being Long term use „ Loss of appetite, digestive disorders, weight loss, malnutrition, insomnia, confusion, anxiety, psychosis Drugs and Dependence „ Methamphetamine „ „ „ „ „ Drugs and Dependence „ Fastest growing drug threat in US White, odorless, bitterbitter-tasting powder Potent central nervous system stimulant Produces feeling of wellwell-being, decreases appetite, increases motor activity and decreases fatigue 4.7 million Americans have tried Methamphetamine „ „ „ Snorted, swallowed, smoked, or injected Speed, crystal, ice, glass, crank Increased Body temperature Blood pressure „ Heart rate „ Breathing rate „ „ Drugs and Dependence „ Methamphetamine „ Decreased „ „ „ „ Appetite Hyperactivity Tremors Violent behavior Drugs and Dependence „ Methamphetamine „ High doses Irritability Paranoia „ Irreversible damage to blood vessels in brain resulting in stroke „ Risk of sudden death „ „ 2 12/13/2007 Drugs and Dependence „ MDMA (Ecstasy) „ „ „ „ „ Drugs and Dependence „ MDMA (Ecstasy) „ X-TC, E, Adam, love drug 1 in 23 eighth graders had tried Night clubs and raves Swallowed, snorted, occasionally injected Reputation of being fun and harmless „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ Drugs and Dependence „ Heroin „ „ „ „ „ 600,000 Americans addicted Diesel, dope, dynamite, white death, nasty boy China white, boy, white H. H Harry, Harry gumball, gumball junk junk, brown sugar, smack, Tootsie roll, black tar, chasing the dragon Heroin with cocaine – “speedballing” Very dangerous Heroin „ Short term symptoms „ „ „ „ „ „ Red, raw nostrils Bone and muscle pains Muscle spasms and cramps Sweating Hot and cold flashes Runny nose and eyes „ Heroin „ Short term symptoms „ „ „ „ „ „ „ Drowsiness Sluggishness Slurred speech Loss of appetite Nausea Diarrhea Restlessness and violent yawning MDMA (Ecstasy) „ „ „ „ „ „ „ Increases blood pressure Increases heart rate Increases body temperature Leads to kidney failure Heart attack Stroke Seizures Drugs and Dependence Heroin „ „ „ Injected intravenously or intramuscularly, sniffed, snorted or smoked State of euphoria Short term symptoms „ „ Drugs and Dependence „ „ Hampers sexual ability Rapid eye movement Faintness Blurred vision Chills Sweating Nausea Muscle tension Teeth grinding Red, raw nostrils Bone and muscle pains Drugs and Dependence „ Heroin „ Long term symptoms „ „ „ „ „ Hallucinations Nightmares Constipation Sexual difficulties Impaired vision „ Heroin „ Long term symptoms „ „ „ „ Reduced fertility Boils Collapsed veins Elevated risk for lung, liver, and cardiovascular diseases 3 12/13/2007 Brain Drugs and Dependence „ Alcohol „ „ „ „ „ Impedes peripheral vision Lowers vision and h i acuity hearing it Decreases reaction time Impairs concentration Alcohol „ „ „ „ „ „ Impairs motor performance Causes impaired j d judgment t Alleviates fear Increases risk taking Stimulates urination Induces sleep • Damages and eventually destroys brain cells • Increases risk for stroke • Impairs memory • Dulls senses • Impairs physical coordination • Can cause depression, psychoses, and hallucinations Oral • May cause cancer Esophagus • Increases cancer risk Heart Immune system • Lowers resistance to disease • Weakens heart muscle • May raise blood pressure • Causes irregular heartbeat Stomach and intestines • Causes C bl bleeding di and d inflammation • May trigger cancer Liver • Damages and eventually destroys liver cells • Displaces important nutrients, resulting in malnutrition • Increases cancer risk Long-term effects Reproductive system • In women, menstrual cycles become irregular; pregnant women have an increased risk of bearing children with birth defects. • In men, hormone levels may be altered; impotence may occur Fig. 13-1, p. 394 Alcohol on Campuses „ „ „ Number one drug problem 66% use 43% binge drink „ „ „ „ 5 or more drinks in a row 28% of all dropouts Students spend more on alcohol than books GPA related to number of drinks per week Fig. 13-2, p. 395 Alcohol on Campus „ Cut your intake „ „ „ „ „ Set reasonable limits Learn to say no Drink slowly Dilute your drinks Do not drink on your own Addiction Treatment „ „ „ Recognize the problem Seek professional help National Center for Substance Abuse T t Treatment t „ „ 1-800800-662 662--HELP 24 hour treatment centers in your area 4 12/13/2007 Largest preventable cause of illness and death in US Tobacco „ „ „ „ „ „ „ Heart disease Cancer Stroke Aortic aneurysm Chronic bronchitis Emphysema Peptic ulcers „ „ „ „ Retarded fetal growth Risk for spontaneous abortion Prenatal death Injury or death from fire p. 400 Stroke Tobacco tobacco smoke estimated to cause 1/3 of strokes Mouth (oral) cancer Cancer of larynx smoking increases risk 3-4 times Lung cancer Chronic lung diseases risks greatly elevated (90% due to smoking in men, 70% in women) (bronchitis and emphysema) most are due to smoking more frequent in smokers Esophageal cancer „ risk much higher in smokers „ Heart attacks smoking more than doubles risks Circulatory disease Peptic (stomach) ulcers risks increased smokers more vulnerable Pancreatic cancer Bladder and kidney cancer 30% linked to smoking „ elevated risks in smokers Cervical cancer „ smoking may increase risk of this disease in women Unborn babies Carbon monoxide hinders capacity of blood to carry oxygen Carbon monoxide and nicotine may damage g the inner wall of arteries and encourage buildup of fat (plaque) More than 1,200 toxic chemicals found in tobacco smoke 87% of lung cancer attributable to smoking at risk for premature birth, low birthweight, stunted development and infant death if mother smokes Fig. 13-4, p. 384 Tobacco „ Significant threat to life „ „ „ „ Each cigarette smoked shortens life by 7 minutes Kills 26 times as manyy p people p as all illegal g drugs combined Largest preventable cause of illness and premature death in US 5 year survival rate for lung cancer <13% 5 12/13/2007 Tobacco „ Smoking responsible for cancers: „ „ „ „ Tobacco „ Oral cavity Larynx Esophagus „ „ Related to development and death from: „ „ „ „ Economic impact Bladder cancer Pancreas cancer Kidney cancer Cervical cancer „ Tobacco „ Trends „ „ „ 6th largest cash crop in US Socially acceptable for many years 1980’s 1980 s no longer so acceptable $130 billion annually for tobacco tobacco--related health care costs and lost productivity Heavy smokers use the health care system twice as much as nonsmokers Every day 1,200 Americans die from smokingsmokingrelated illnesses Smokeless Tobacco „ „ Promoted as safe alternative US Surgeon General „ „ „ „ Significant health risk Just as addictive as cigarette smoking 15 million Americans use Increased use of “spit” tobacco „ „ „ „ 2 million under 25 20% of males grades 9 through 12 1/3 began use at age 5 Average starting age 9 Why People Smoke? „ „ „ „ Peer pressure Desire to appear “grown up” Rebellion against authority Smoking three packs leads to physiological addiction „ Nicotine has strong addictive properties 6 12/13/2007 Why People Smoke? „ Smoking dependency Relax „ Pleasure from the ritual „ Associate with many y activities „ Part of social gatherings „ Smoking Cessation „ „ „ „ „ „ „ Decide to quit Initiate a personal diet and exercise program D id on approach Decide h Keep a daily log of smoking for a few days Set the date to quit Stock up on low low--calorie foods On quit day, do not keep cigarettes handy Smoking Cessation „ „ „ Cold Turkey Cut down gradually Nicotine substitution products Life After Cigarettes „ „ „ Never too late to quit Circulation improves Simple pleasures improve „ Taste and smell 7 ...
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