Notes 1-25-08 - 1/25/08 - - - - - Ottoman Empire o Longest...

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1/25/08 - Ottoman Empire o Longest imperial dynasty in human history o A multi-ethnic, multi-religious, bureaucratic, Islamic empire ruled by a Turkish dynastic family o Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453 o Sultan/caliph o Most of the Arabic speaking Middle east had been pert of the Ottoman Empire, at least nominally, for hundreds of years o Prior to 1870s, British wanted to preserve Ottoman territorial integrity as a bulwark against Russia o Ottoman territorial loses: Serbia (1878); Bulgaria (1876, 1908); Cyprus (1878); Tunisia (1881); Egypt (1882); Bosnia & Herzegovina (1908); Libya (1911) o Young Turk (CUP) coups; constitutional monarchy by WWI o Young Turks ally the Empire with Germany Shaykh Mubarak of Kuwait seeks greater independent from Basra and signs treaty with Britain in 1899 – origins of Iraqi claim to Kuwait Ruling sheikhs in port towns on Gulf nominally under Ottoman “rule,” but British protectorates - The Hashemites and the Arab Revolt o British approach both Sharif Husayn in Mecca and Abd al-Aziz al-Saud in
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Notes 1-25-08 - 1/25/08 - - - - - Ottoman Empire o Longest...

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