Psych 104 Final - Chapter 1 Psychology and Scientific...

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Chapter 1: Psychology and Scientific Thinking Psychology : a scientific study of the mind, brain and behavior. Levels of analysis : lower rungs- biological influences (brain), higher rungs- social influences (mind). There are many factors that contribute to psychology- multiply determined. -Human behavior is hard to predict -Psychological differences -People differ in thinking/emotion/personality/behavior -People influence each other -People’s behavior is shaped by culture. Naïve Realism: the belief that we see the world precisely as it is. Seeing is believing. Perception is reality. Confirmation Bias : the tendency to seek out evidence that supports our beliefs and deny/dismiss evidence that contradicts them. Belief Perseverance : the tendency to stick to our initial beliefs when evidence contradicts them. Metaphysical claims: assertion about the world that is not testable. Pseudoscience: a set of claims that seem scientific but aren’t. (Fortune teller, psychic, cult leader) HOC immunizing hypothesis: escape loophole defenders of a theory use to protect it. -Lack of self correction -Overreliance on anecdotes Apophenia: perceiving meaningful connections among unrelated and even random phenomena. Ex) we think of a friend and they call Pareidolia: seeing meaningful images in meaningless stimuli Emotional Reasoning Fallacy- the error of using our emotions as a guide for making a decision Ex) the idea that daycare might have a negative effect on children makes me upset, so I refuse to believe it. Bandwagon Fallacy- the error of assuming that a claim is correct just because many people believe it
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Ex) lots of people I know believe in astrology, so there’s got to be something to it Not me Fallacy- the error of believing that we’re immune from errors or thinking that afflict other people Ex) biases don’t affect me because I’m objective Scientific Thinking Principles 1) Ruling out rival hypotheses- have important alternative explanations for the findings been excluded? 2) Correlation vs. Causation- can we be sure that a causes b? 3) Falsifiability- can the claim be disapproved? 4) Replicability- can the results be duplicated in other studies? 5) Extraordinary claims- is the evidence as strong as the claim? 6) Occam’s Razor- does a simpler explanation fit the data just as well? Introspection: observers carefully reflect and report on their mental experiences 1) Structuralism: identify the basic elements of a psychological experience (E.B Titchener) 2) Functionalism: to understand the functions of thoughts, feelings and behaviors (William James) 3) Behaviorism: to uncover the general principle of learning that explain all behaviors (John B. Watson, B.F Skinner) 4) Cognitivism: to examine the role of mental processes on behavior (Jean Piaget, Ulric Neisser) 5) Psychoanalysis: to uncover the role of unconscious psychological process (Sigmund Freud) Chapter 2: Research Methods Heuristics: mental shortcut that helps us to streamline our thinking Representativeness heuristic: judging the probability of an event by its similarity to a prototype
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