Chapter_10 - Chapter 10 1 What characteristics should a...

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Chapter 10 1. What characteristics should a molecule possesses to sever as a genetic material? a. Replication b. Storage of information c. Expression of information d. Variation by mutation 2. What three types of RNA do we make in transcription? a. mRNA b. tRNA c. rRNA 3. How does translation take place? a. rRNA contained within ribosomes and tRNA interaction b. tRNA convert in info in mRNA into amino acids of a protein 4. What is the central dogma again? a. DNA makes RNA which is called transcription b. RNA then makes protein which is called translation 5. Why did scientists believe that the genetic info carriers were protein? a. Because they were most abundant in cells b. Another reason is that the structure of nucleic acids was way too simple to contain large amount of information. According to the tetranucleotide hypothesis, they were just make of simple 4 nucleotides and they occurred at a ratio of 1:1:1:1 which was later disproved. Protein on the other hand contain 20 amino acids and thus could contain large amount of info. c. Proteins were the most active area of research at that time. 6. Who were the three people that disproved the theory that protein was the DNA material? How? a. Avery, Macleod, McCarty b. By their experiment of transformation. 7. Explain the experiment of transformation. a. They used diplococcus pneumoniae where the virulent and encapsulated were the smooth and the averulent were the rough and not capsulated. And they used serotype II and III. Serotype has to do with the capsule. i. Inject living Smooth and mouse dies ii. Inject living Rough and mouse lives iii. Inject heat killed smooth and mouse lives iv. Inject a mixture of heat killed smooth and living rough and the mouse dies. b. Something in the dead smooth made the rough averulent virulent. This is transformation. Note that the transformation did not occur inside the mice but as soon as you mix the two cultures. 8. How did they prove that DNA was really the transformation factor was DNA? a. Page 236 9. What is another experiment done that backed up the work or the three scientists? a. Hariet Taylor where she isolated an extremely rough (ER) mutant from an R strain. b. The ER strain produced colonies that were more irregular than the R strain.
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c. She found that the DNA from R accomplished the tranfromation of ER to R. 10. What virus infects ecoli? a. Bacteria phage T2 or phage 11. What is a lytic cycle and tell me how it occurs. a. It is how phages reproduce i. First phage attaches to the bacterial membrane by its tails ii. Then it injects it genetic material inside iii. Then new phages are made and the bacterial cell lyse and the phages come out 12. How did Hershey and chase show that DNA was the factor of transformation? a.
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Chapter_10 - Chapter 10 1 What characteristics should a...

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