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13_ImmunRepro_45_46_S08

13_ImmunRepro_45_46_S08 - Endocrinology II 3 main types of...

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3/12/2008 1 Endocrinology II 3 main types of transduction All involve specific protein receptor only found in correct target cell. Receptor-hormone complex mediates the specific change in target cell – resulting in either enzyme or gene activation Signal transduction Must have some way of turning the system off The multifunctional epinephrine! 3 main types of transduction 1) Signal transduction of steriods - steriods are non-polar, lipid soluable - transported by carrier molecules in blood - can pass freely across cell membrane Signal transduction - bind with cytoplasmic or nuclear receptor proteins - allows for production of new protein and enzymes 3 main types of transduction 2) Signal transduction of thyroid hormones - transported by carrier molecules in blood - also non-polar, so can pass freely across cell membrane Signal transduction - its receptor is on the nucleus of the target cell - allows for production of new protein and enzymes
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3/12/2008 2 3 main types of transduction 3) Signal transduction of polar hormones - includes catecholamines and peptides - since it can’t get into the cell it needs a 2 nd messenger inside the cell Signal transduction - 2 nd messengers include cAMP or Inositol triphosphate (IP 3 ), 3 rd messenger is calcium Several major players: 1) Brain hypothalamus, pituitary - both closely tied and connected by blood supply thru a portal system - hypothalamus receives sensory input from brain System control – the cascade! - sends chemical signal to the pituitary - pituitary then sends another chem. signal to target organ(s) 2) Target organs (other endocrine organs) – pancreas, gonads.. 9 formal endocrine organs (several are 2 in 1) 10 other organs with 2 ° endocrine-like functions Targets may be specialized, narrow group of tissues Endocrine organs Others have broader range of tissues/organs Some targets other endocrine organs Hypothalamus – makes releasing hormones to stimulate pituitary Pituitary – makes tropic hormones that act on still other endocrine glands Hypothalamus – in the brain, is master control center - integrates nervous and endocrine systems - sensory info goes to hypothalamus for integration - contains specialize neuron called Endocrine organs contains specialize neuron called neurosecretory cells that receive input from sensory neurons and interneurons - respond by synthesizing and releasing peptide hormones into blood - two populations of neurosecretory cells Hypothalamus – in the brain, is master control center - one set produces hormones that are carried in the neurosecretory cell axon to the posterior pituitary (PP) for release into the blood at the gland Endocrine organs - Exp/ ADH and oxytocin – both small peptides - other set produces specific releasing hormones (RH) that travel to the anterior pituitary (AP) - these hormone can stimulate the AP to promote or inhibit AP hormone production - Exp/ GnRH, GHRH - releasing hormones enter bloodstream in the portal vein system between hypothalamus and Pit.
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