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11-Immun-43-S08 - Immune function Blood components Other...

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3/5/2008 1 Immune function Blood components • Mast cells - not circulated thru the blood - in tissues granulated and wandering Other types of cells: in tissues, granulated and wandering - secrete histamine, heprin, and other proteins - functions like a basophil - major role in triggering allergic response in some and anti-parasitic Immune function: Question: What is the function of the immune system? Immune function: Question : What is a pathogen? Immune function: viruses (Exp/ smallpox, rabies, polio) bacteria (Exp/ anthrax, botulism) fungi (yeast) parasites (multicellular: worms, protozoa ) t i (b id k b t i l t i ) Types of pathogens: toxins (bee, spider, snake venom; bacterial toxins) pollen, etc. cancer cells (recognized by body as ‘foreign’, or ‘non-self’) foreign tissues of an organ transplant or blood transfusion autoimmune disease – body fails to recongnize itself and treats tissues as an invader Immune function: How does the body prevent or deal with invasions of foreign bodies or agent? Two types of responses: Lines of defense: 1) Non-specific responses (natural barriers and general responses) - the 1 st line of defense! 2) Specific responses (response to particular pathogens) - antibodies n’ such
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3/5/2008 2 Nonspecific responses: Many inverts only have this response system. Some inverts: Annelids, Echinoderms, and even Cnidarians (corals) have a “specific” response Barriers to infection: 1) Ski ( h i l b i t i d ) 1 st line of defense: Skin (physical barrier to invaders) - skin secretions (eg. saliva, tears, sweat) - contain lysozymes antimicrobial enzymes - oils/sweats are acidic (lower pH 3-5) 2) lungs (directly interact with external envir.) - trachea and bronchi clean out particles and toxins using cilia and mucus Figure 43.2 First-line respiratory defenses Nonspecific responses: 3) Ingested nasties (things entering the gut) - highly acidic stomach reduces invaders - mucus lining also help prevent invasion 4) Normal bacterial flora (found in gut and 1 st line of defense: vagina) - help out compete pathogens Nonspecific responses: • Cellular-Chemical- inflammation Can also aid specific responses Used in minor invasions with few invaders Response can include phagocytes (macrophages), complement and inflammation 1) Phagocytes (WBC, neutrophils, macrophages) 2 nd line of defense: - recruited to the site by chemotaxis secreted by mast cells - phagocytic cells - tissue specific types and natural killer cells 2) Antimicrobial proteins - cytokines, chemokines (cell attractants, signals)
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