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Unformatted text preview: 3/5/2008 1 Immune function Immune function Blood components Blood components Mast cells- not circulated thru the blood- in tissues granulated and wandering Other types of cells: in tissues, granulated and wandering- secrete histamine, heprin, and other proteins- functions like a basophil- major role in triggering allergic response in some and anti-parasitic Immune function: Immune function: Question: What is the function of the immune system? Immune function: Immune function: Question : What is a pathogen? Immune function: Immune function: viruses (Exp/ smallpox, rabies, polio) bacteria (Exp/ anthrax, botulism) fungi (yeast) parasites (multicellular: worms, protozoa ) Types of pathogens: toxins (bee, spider, snake venom; bacterial toxins) pollen, etc. cancer cells (recognized by body as foreign, or non-self) foreign tissues of an organ transplant or blood transfusion autoimmune disease body fails to recongnize itself and treats tissues as an invader Immune function: Immune function: How does the body prevent or deal with invasions of foreign bodies or agent? Two types of responses: Lines of defense: 1) Non-specific responses (natural barriers and general responses)- the1 st line of defense! 2) Specific responses (response to particular pathogens)- antibodies n such 3/5/2008 2 Nonspecific responses: Nonspecific responses: Many inverts only have this response system. Some inverts: Annelids, Echinoderms, and even Cnidarians (corals) have a specific response Barriers to infection: 1 st line of defense: 1) Skin (physical barrier to invaders)- skin secretions (eg. saliva, tears, sweat)- contain lysozymes antimicrobial enzymes- oils/sweats are acidic (lower pH 3-5) 2) lungs (directly interact with external envir.)- trachea and bronchi clean out particles and toxins using cilia and mucus Figure 43.2 First-line respiratory defenses Nonspecific responses: Nonspecific responses: 3) Ingested nasties (things entering the gut)- highly acidic stomach reduces invaders- mucus lining also help prevent invasion 4) Normal bacterial flora (found in gut and 1 st line of defense: 4) Normal bacterial flora (found in gut and vagina)- help out compete pathogens Nonspecific responses: Nonspecific responses: Cellular-Chemical- inflammation Can also aid specific responses Used in minor invasions with few invaders Response can include phagocytes (macrophages), complement and inflammation 1) Phagocytes (WBC, neutrophils, macrophages) 2 nd line of defense:- recruited to the site by chemotaxis secreted by...
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