14-Nervous-48-S08

14-Nervous-48-S08 - 3/16/2008 1 Nervous system Nervous...

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Unformatted text preview: 3/16/2008 1 Nervous system Nervous system Figure 45.5 Human endocrine glands surveyed in this chapter Gonadal hormones:- Produced by the gonads (ovaries and testes)- Steriods that regulate growth, development, maturation, repro., bone development and maintenance- Three types found in both sexes, but in differing amounts Endocrine organs Endocrine organs- Balances change with cycles in females- Controlled by gonadotropins (FSH, LH) from AP, which are controlled by GnRH from Hypothalamus gonadal hormones: 1. Androgens (testosterone)- stimulates devel. and maintenance of male reprod.- production during development will determine whether female will become male- increased androgens cause 2 ° sexual Endocrine organs Endocrine organs increased androgens cause 2 sexual development 2. Estrogen- main form is estradiol- similar function as androgen except in females- also important in reproductive cycling in uterine lining development gonadal hormones: 3. Progesterone- works with estrogen- aids in preparing and maintaining uterus during menstrual cycle Endocrine organs Endocrine organs Figure 45.5 Human endocrine glands surveyed in this chapter 3/16/2008 2 Pineal hormones:- Not well understood- Produces melatonin , mostly at night- Thought to regulate circadian rhythms- Has external port in lower vertebrates and inverts. Endocrine organs Endocrine organs • Body has two control systems: Endocrine – uses hormones to regulate body function, moderate to slow in transmission speed Nervous – chemical and electrical signals, very fast transmission speed The nervous system The nervous system very fast transmission speed. Nervous system organization: • Input, Integration, Output • All achieved by conducting electrical signals or impulses via nerves Input = sensory afferent receptors The nervous system The nervous system Input = sensory ( afferent receptors)- eyes, nose, ears, skin, hair…- blood glucose receptors, osmoreceptors- incoming part of Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): neurons and nerves carrying sensory and motor (receptor/effector) impulses to and from the CNS Figure 48.1 Overview of a vertebrate nervous system Integration = central nervous system (CNS)- integration of sensory and motor and other functions (memory, learning, cognition, etc.)- in spinal cord and brain via interneurons or association neurons 1) Spinal cord integrates simple responses The nervous system The nervous system- integrates simple responses- carries information to and from... 2) Brain- Major integration of complex responses, thought, memory, unconscious responses (e.g., posture, orientation, sensory integration, etc.) Output = efferent motor neurons (CNS)- sends signal from brain to effectors (muscles or gland)- also part of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) The nervous system The nervous system 3/16/2008 3 • Basic cells and units (neurons and glial cells) • Human CNS has about 10 11 (100 billion!) neurons • 10-50x as many glial cells Neurons – bundled into nerves...
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This note was uploaded on 05/18/2008 for the course BIOL 211B taught by Professor Lowe/zahn during the Spring '08 term at CSU Long Beach.

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14-Nervous-48-S08 - 3/16/2008 1 Nervous system Nervous...

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