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14-Nervous-48-S08 - Nervous system Figure 45.5 Human...

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3/16/2008 1 Nervous system Figure 45.5 Human endocrine glands surveyed in this chapter Gonadal hormones: - Produced by the gonads (ovaries and testes) - Steriods that regulate growth, development, maturation, repro., bone development and maintenance - Three types found in both sexes, but in differing amounts Endocrine organs - Balances change with cycles in females - Controlled by gonadotropins (FSH, LH) from AP, which are controlled by GnRH from Hypothalamus gonadal hormones: 1. Androgens (testosterone) - stimulates devel. and maintenance of male reprod. - production during development will determine whether female will become male - increased androgens cause 2 ° sexual Endocrine organs increased androgens cause 2 development 2. Estrogen - main form is estradiol - similar function as androgen except in females - also important in reproductive cycling in uterine lining development gonadal hormones: 3. Progesterone - works with estrogen - aids in preparing and maintaining uterus during menstrual cycle Endocrine organs Figure 45.5 Human endocrine glands surveyed in this chapter
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3/16/2008 2 Pineal hormones: - Not well understood - Produces melatonin , mostly at night - Thought to regulate circadian rhythms - Has external port in lower vertebrates and inverts. Endocrine organs Body has two control systems: Endocrine – uses hormones to regulate body function, moderate to slow in transmission speed Nervous – chemical and electrical signals, very fast transmission speed The nervous system very fast transmission speed. Nervous system organization: Input, Integration, Output All achieved by conducting electrical signals or impulses via nerves Input = sensory ( afferent receptors) The nervous system - eyes, nose, ears, skin, hair… - blood glucose receptors, osmoreceptors - incoming part of Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): neurons and nerves carrying sensory and motor (receptor/effector) impulses to and from the CNS Figure 48.1 Overview of a vertebrate nervous system Integration = central nervous system (CNS) - integration of sensory and motor and other functions (memory, learning, cognition, etc.) - in spinal cord and brain via interneurons or association neurons 1) Spinal cord integrates simple responses The nervous system - - carries information to and from... 2) Brain - Major integration of complex responses, thought, memory, unconscious responses (e.g., posture, orientation, sensory integration, etc.) Output = efferent motor neurons (CNS) - sends signal from brain to effectors (muscles or gland) - also part of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) The nervous system
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