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Handout10_Chapter_19

Handout10_Chapter_19 - Chemistry 008 Dr Neal Abrams brought...

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Chemistry 008 Handout #10 Dr. Neal Abrams brought to you by the Spring 2007 Learning Strategies Center NOTE: This review sheet is for Chem 008 attendees and is to be used in conjunction with lecture notes, handouts, problem sets, the textbook, the laboratory manual, and notes from Chem 008. Chapter 19 Review Guide Lectures 4/10 and 4/12 Entropy and Free Energy I. Entropy (S) is a measure of disorder or randomness Disorder arises from the number of available states at any one time (particle in box). Things affecting the number of states (rungs on a ladder) usually include the size of the box (length of the rung = length of a molecule) and temperature (more rungs are occupied). The disorder directly comes from the degree of motion a molecule can have (vibrational, rotational, translational). a. Boltzmann’s Formula - predicts the entropy of a state based on the number of ways the state can be achieved. S = k b ln W where k b is the Boltzmann constant k b = R/N A = 1.38 X 10 -23 J/K, N A is
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