L71-07 Animal Evolution SLIDES - Terms to know and...

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Unformatted text preview: Terms to know and understand from Lecture 70: Hypha [pl. hyphae] Mycelium Chitin Coenocytic [=syncytial] Heterotrophic Exozyme Heterokaryotic Dikaryotic Plasmogamy Karyogamy Zygomycota Zygosproragium Ascomycota Ascospore Ascus Ascocarp Conidiophore Conidiospore Basidiomycota Basidiospore Basidium Basidiocarp Chytrid Glomeromycota Arbuscular mycorrhiza Deuteromycota Lichen Saprobe Synapomorphies for the Fungi Deuteromycota 7 5 6 1. Chitin in cell wall 2. Exozymic digestion 3. Heterokaryotic 4. Loss of flagella 5. Zygosporangium 6. Arbuscules 7. Ascocarp 8. Basidiocarp 4 4 8 4 Lichens Cyanobacteria or Green algae 1, 2, 3 Lecture 71: Animal Diversity and Evolution Plants Fungi Animals The Eukaryotes The major animal groups: Common name 1. Sponges 2. Cnidarians 3. Flat worms 4. Roundworms 5. Segmented worms 6. Molluscs 7. Arthropods 8. Rotifers 9. Bryozoans 10. Tunicates 11. Vertebrates 12. Echinoderms Taxon Porifera Cnidaria Platyhelminthes Nematoda Annelida Mollusca Arthropoda Rotifera Bryozoa Urochordata Vertebrata Echinodermata # species 6,000 10,000 20,000 90,000 20,000 93,000 >1 million 1,800 4,500 3,000 52,000 7,000 + more than 20 `minor' phyla Chordata Porifera 6,000 spp Cnidaria 10,000 spp Bryozoa 4,500 spp Urochordata 3,000 spp Platyhelminthes 20,000 spp Nematoda 90,000+ spp Annelida 20,000 spp Rotifera 1,800 spp Arthropoda > 1 million spp Mollusca 93,000 spp Echinodermata 7,000 spp Vertebrata 52,000 spp "Constraints of Life" 1. Acquiring energy and nutrients [=prey] 2. Deterring predators 3. Beating competitors 4. Surviving the physical environment 5. Reproduction Organ Systems: 1. Integument 2. Support/Skeletal 3. Effectors [Muscles etc.] 4. Affectors [Sensory] 5. Integration [Nervous] 6. Endocrine 7. Digestive 8. Excretory 9. Circulatory 10. Respiratory 11. Reproductive The major animal groups: Common name 1. Sponges 2. Cnidarians 3. Flat worms 4. Roundworms 5. Segmented worms 6. Molluscs** 7. Arthropods 8. Rotifers 9. Bryozoans 10. Tunicates 11. Vertebrates 12. Echinoderms Taxon Porifera Cnidaria Platyhelminthes Nematoda Annelida Mollusca Arthropoda Rotifera Bryozoa Urochordata Vertebrata Echinodermata # species 6,000 10,000 20,000 90,000 20,000 93,000 >1 million 1,800 4,500 3,000 52,000 7,000 + more than 20 `minor' phyla Chordata What is an animal? 1. Cell connections: tight junctions, gap junctions, and desmosomes 2. Distinctive collagen extracellular matrix 3. Unique tissues: nerves and muscles Synapomorphies for the Kingdom Animalia: General characteristics 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Multicellular Heterotrophic by ingestion Lack cell walls Abbreviated life history diploid Anisogamous gametes Monociliated cells Hox genes that control differentiation Animal development and defining groups 1. Symmetry mobility or not Coloniality Bilateral symmetry 2. Cleavage patterns 3. Determination patterns 4. Germ layer formation 5. Cavity [Coelom+] formation patterns 6. Regulatory patterns Hox genes Anterior posterior orientation blastopore Segmentation Limb development P D M A M A Body cavities Larval type A well supported hypothesis of animal phylogeny Bilateral symmetry Po ri f er Cn ans id ar ia ns Ne m at od es Ar th ro po ds R ot ife rs Br yo zo an s Pl at yh el m in An th ne s li d s M ol l us cs Ec hi n od er Tu m s ni ca te Ve rte s br at es The same phylogeny - Pr ot os to me s De ut er os to m es Po ri f er Cn ans id ar ia ns Ec hi no de rm Tu s ni ca t V e es r te br at es Ne m at od es Ar th ro po ds Ro tif er s Br yo zo an s Pl at yh el m in An th ne s li d s M ol lu sc s 1. Cleavage patterns 2. Determination patterns 3. Regulatory patterns Blastopore formation Anterior/posterior 4. Cavity [Coelom+] formation patterns Radial Later Anus Enterocoelus De ut er os to me s Pr ot os to me s I. Symmetry radial vs bilateral II. Developmental protocols: Spiral Earlier Mouth Schizocoelus Po ri f er Cn ans id ar ia ns Ec hi no de rm Tu s ni ca t V e es r te br at es Ne m at od es Ar th ro po ds Ro tif er s Br yo zo an s Pl at yh el m in An th ne s li d s M ol lu sc s = Well supported nodes ? Area of ? Ambiguity Po ri f er Cn ans id ar ia ns Ec hi no de rm Tu s ni ca t V e es r te br at es Ne m at od es Ar th ro po ds Ro tif er s Br yo zo an s Pl at yh el m in An th ne s li d s M ol lu sc s ? Po ri f er Cn ans id ar ia ns Ec hi no de rm Tu s ni ca t V e es r te br at es Ne m at od es Ar th ro po ds Ro tif er s Br yo zo an s Pl at yh el m in An th ne s li d s M ol lu sc s ? Po ri f er Cn ans id ar ia ns Ec hi no de rm Tu s ni ca t V e es r te br at es Ne m at od es Ar th ro po ds Ro tif er s Br yo zo an s Pl at yh el m in An th ne s li d s M ol lu sc s Deuterostomes Protostomes ? Po ri f er Cn ans id ar ia ns Ec hi no de rm Tu s ni ca t V e es r te br at es Ne m at od es Ar th ro po ds Ro tif er s Br yo zo an s Pl at yh el m in An th ne s li d s M ol lu sc s ? Po ri f er Cn ans id ar ia ns Ec hi no de rm Tu s ni ca t V e es r te br at es Ne m at od es Ar th ro po ds Ro tif er s Br yo zo an s Pl at yh el m in An th ne s li d s M ol lu sc s Deuterostomes Ecdysozoans Protostomes Lophotrochozoans ? Po ri f er Cn ans id ar ia ns Ec hi no de rm Tu s ni ca t V e es r te br at es Ne m at od es Ar th ro po ds Ro tif er s Br yo zo an s Pl at yh el m in An th ne s li d s M ol lu sc s time Cambrian Explosion Po ri f er Cn ans id ar ia ns Ec hi no de rm Tu s ni ca t V e es r te br at es Ne m at od es Ar th ro po ds Ro tif er s Br yo zo an s Pl at yh el m in An th ne s li d s M ol lu sc s 800 550 Cambrian explosion 250 65 Cenozoic 2 .2 1.8 1.4 Metazoans evolve Paleozoic Mesozoic Modern Eukary -otes evolve 1 st Eu ka ry ot es Ozone layer develops Cambrian Explosion Po ri f er Cn ans id ar ia ns Ec hi no de rm Tu s ni ca t V e es r te br at es Ne m at od es Ar th ro po ds Ro tif er s Br yo zo an s Pl at yh el m in An th ne s li d s M ol lu sc s The Ediacaran Fauna 580 mya The Cambrian Explosion and the Burgess Shale ~530 mya Even if you are on the right track, you will get run over if you just sit there John Ray 1627-1705, English naturalist sometimes referred to as the father of English natural history 1955 "I'll tell you one thing, if things keep going the way they are, it's going to be impossible to buy a week's groceries for $20." Comments made in the year 1955 ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/18/2008 for the course BIO G 104 taught by Professor Chen,k.c during the Spring '06 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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