American Indian Education - Warning Concerning Copyright...

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Warning Concerning Copyright Restrictions The copyright law of the United States (Title 17, United States Code) governs the making of photocopies or other reproductions of copyrighted material. Under certain conditions specified in the law, libraries and archives are authorized to furnish a photocopy or other reproduction. One of these specified conditions is that the photocopy or reproduction is not to be "used for any purpose other than private study, scholarship, or research." If a user makes a request for, or later uses, a photocopy or reproduction for purposes in excess of "fair use," that user may be liable for copyright infringement. This institution reserves the right to refuse to accept a copying order if, in its judgment, fulfillment of the order would involve violation of copyright law. Printing note: If you do not want to print this page, select pages 2 to the end on the print dialog screen. Mann Library fax: 607 255-0318 www.mannlib.cornell.edu
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A COMPANION TO AMERICAN INDIAN HISTORY Edited by Philip J. Deloria and Neal Salisbury pBLACKWELL
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23 American Indian Education: by Indians versus for Indians K. TSIANINA LOMAWAIMA The term "American Indian education" has referred to the education of Indian people by Indian people. The term has also referred to the education designed for Indian people by colonizing nations. For the last five centuries, education by Indians and education for Indians have stood at loggerheads. The former has been dedi- cated, as in all human societies, to perpetuating family values, language, religion, politics, economies, skills, sciences, and technologies. Colonial education for Indians has been dedicated to eradicating Native knowledge and values, and substituting values and knowledge judged to be "civilized." In the "American" era (from 1776 through the present), "civilized" education has usually meant instruction in English and the suppression of Native languages; conversion to Christianity and the criminalization of Native religions; an emphasis on manual labor, and on "industrial" or "vocational" rather than academic training; strict regimentation of dress, emotional expression, and physical activity through military discipline; and physical disruption of family/community by removing Indian children into boarding schools, tuberculosis sanatoria, orphanages, and non- Indian foster homes (see Qoyawayma, 1964; Giago, 1978; St. Pierre, 1991; Skolnick and Skolnick, 1997). Despite generations of efforts to "civilize" them, Native people have vigorously defended education by Indians, and have vigorously resisted colonial education in both overt and covert ways. One of the most overt student rebellions took place in 1919 at the off-reservation boarding school, Haskell Institute, in Lawrence, Kansas. Students ran "amok" one evening, shouting '"Let's string him up!' as the principal worked to restore order" (Child, 1996: 54). Parents protested by keeping students home, or by writing letters. Filling box after box in the National Archives, parental letters address enrollment poli-
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American Indian Education - Warning Concerning Copyright...

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