American Indians on Americas Indian Policy

American Indians on - Warning Concerning Copyright Restrictions The copyright law of the United States(Title 17 United States Code governs the

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Warning Concerning Copyright Restrictions The copyright law of the United States (Title 17, United States Code) governs the making of photocopies or other reproductions of copyrighted material. Under certain conditions specified in the law, libraries and archives are authorized to furnish a photocopy or other reproduction. One of these specified conditions is that the photocopy or reproduction is not to be "used for any purpose other than private study, scholarship, or research." If a user makes a request for, or later uses, a photocopy or reproduction for purposes in excess of "fair use," that user may be liable for copyright infringement. This institution reserves the right to refuse to accept a copying order if, in its judgment, fulfillment of the order would involve violation of copyright law. Printing note: If you do not want to print this page, select pages 2 to the end on the print dialog screen. Mann Library fax: 607 255-0318 www.mannlib.cornell.edu
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THE BEDFORD SERIES IN HISTORY AND CULTURE Talking Back to Civilization Indian Voices from the Progressive Era
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4 American Indians on America's Indian Policy During the Progressive Era, the educated Indian leaders who joined the Society of American Indians or spoke out in the political arena were sympathetic to the fundamental goals of U.S. Indian policy. Anchored by the General Allotment Act, which mandated the gradual transformation of communally owned reservations into communities of independent farmers living on individually owned tracts of land, national policy promised to "assimilate" Native people into the general American population. In addition to promoting individual land owner- ship, federal programs promised to provide literacy, gradual citizen- ship, and rudimentary "job training" to individuals wishing to be farmers or unskilled workers. Many Native leaders who spoke out in the early twentieth century generally embraced this offer. Government programs in place in the first decade of the twentieth century had largely been conceived in the 1870s and 1880s, a period when the idealism of the Civil War era was slipping into memory and the closely balanced power of Republicans and Democrats limited political leadership. In this atmosphere, "Indian reform" struck a reso- nant note, particularly with congressional Republicans. Promising "jus- tice" to Native Americans was politically easy—land and education for Indians generated none of the backlash produced by similar proposals for African Americans. The promise of "equality" for Indians threat- ened few white voters, particularly when the bulk of the tribes lived in federal territories and sent no voting delegates to Congress. Policy- makers launched the assimilationist agenda with nearly unanimous congressional support. It should not be surprising, then, that at the turn of the twentieth century graduates of federal Indian boarding schools and Christian Indian leaders saw no alternative to the govern- ment's programs. 87
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This note was uploaded on 05/18/2008 for the course AIS 1110 taught by Professor Richardson during the Spring '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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American Indians on - Warning Concerning Copyright Restrictions The copyright law of the United States(Title 17 United States Code governs the

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