HIS344 Final Exam Study Notes (2) - HIS344 Final Exam Study...

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HIS344 Final Exam Study Notes1stSemester:The Cuban Missile CrisisCauses: The Cuban Revolution of 1959 + Bay of Pigs 1961 = growing American AnimositySoviet support of Cuba (replacing American influence); Khrushchev’s unease over USSRlag in arms race Growing tensions between US & USSR especially after Berlin Crisis of 1961Consequences:Both sides alienated their allies: Cuba was angry with USSR for succumbing to the American ultimatum; Turkey was angry with US because they didn’t include them in the discussion about the removal of the Jupiter IRBMs Cuba remained communist & was isolated from the rest of Latin America; 1964 OAS countries suspended diplomatic & trade relations with the countryThis shaped US policy towards Latin America for the following years because of the perceived threat of Cuba and the spread of communism in Latin America – led to unilateral interference in those states throughout the 1970s-80s Timeline1959 – Cuban Revolution; in April Fidel visits US and promotes cooperation & friendliness but Eisenhower wouldn’t even directly meet with him– Agrarian Reform Law implemented by Castro, land expropriated, US companies stood to lose 1.6 million acres of landFeb 1960 – Deputy Chairman of Soviet Council of Ministers goes to Havana to negotiate economic partnership (already growing military partnership); Moscow agreesto give Cuba $200 million in low-interest loans & committed to buying 4 million tonnes of sugar every yearSeptember 1960 – Castro goes to NYC, UN General Assembly meeting, Khrushchev boasts about their allianceOctober 1960 – Castro nationalizes all commercial enterprisesOctober 19 1960 – Eisenhower imposes embargo on Cuba on everything except medical suppliesand foodstuffApril 17 1961 – Bay of Pigs fiasco – 1,600 CIA trained Cuban exiles arrive at Playa de Giron, assumed that Castro’s supporters would defect & they would be able to remove the government from power, but the people on the island were loyal & within 2 days all of the invaders were dead or in prison; Cuba was seen as a serious threat to US national security – as a result, throughout 1961-1962 there was a covert continued US attempt to destabilize Cuban gov’t through Operation Mongoose
February 1962 – Kennedy in power; extends the Cuban embargo, eliminated the part about allowing medical aid & foodstuff (what a dick)April 1962 – Cuba asks USSR for weapons as defense against possible US attack. USSR gives it to them and also offers nuclear weapons as well; never before had USSR offered transfer of nuclear weapons to any other territory not even Eastern Europe or China; Khrushchev assumed that the US wouldn’t know about the transfer of weapons and he would tell them once it was done and Kennedy would be confronted with fait accompliOctober 14 1962 – Kennedy authorizes U-2 mission, gets photographic evidence that Soviet missile sites under construction in CubaOct 16-20 – Ex Com meetings on how to handle the situation; they decided that merely

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Term
Summer
Professor
V.Dimitriadis
Tags
USSR, Bay of Pigs, Cold War, Cuban Missile Crisis, Final Exam, National security

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