Index - aba arrangement, 776-777 abt arrangement, 777, 779...

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Unformatted text preview: aba arrangement, 776-777 abt arrangement, 777, 779 ABS. See Acrylonitrile— butadiene—styrene Absolute entropy, 426—428 Absolute free energy, 438 Absolute zero, 144, 145 Absorbance, 687, A18, A20 Absorption, 741 Accelerators, 988, 1003 Acclimatization, high altitudes, 971 Accuracy, A9 Acetaldehyde, 1030 Acetate ion, 38, 254 Acetic acid, 44, 96, 230, 1032 acid dissociation constant for, 230, A24 molecular structure of, 231 reaction with ethanol, 1031 reaction with strong base, 111 titration with sodium hydroxide, 298-302 as weak acid, 92—93 Acetone, 1030 Acetylene, 1022 Acetylsalicylic acid, 1032 Acid. See Acids Acid-base indicators, 112, 309—314 Acid—base problems, 233-234, 267 Acid-base reactions, 98 stoichiometric calculations, 111-115 titrations, 112—113 Acid—base titrations, 112—113 indicators, 112, 309-314 of polyprotic acids, 314—318 strong acid-strong base titrations, 294—297, 311-312 of triprotic acids, 315 weak acid—strong base titrations, 297—306 weak base-strong acid titrations, 306-309 Acid dissociation constant, 228,A24 Acid rain, 175, 176, 226, 742 Acids acid—base titrations, 112—113, 293—309 Arrhenius concept of, 227 Bransted—Lowry definition of, 110, 227, 228 carboxyl group, 230 conjugate acid, 227 definition of, 44 diprotic, 229, 247 history of, 91 hydronium ion, 227 indicators, 309—314 Lewis definition, 944 Lewis structures, 228 monoprotic, 230, 305—306 naming of, 44 organic acids, 230 oxyacids, 229—230 percent dissociation, 239—241 pH scale, 232—239 polyprotic, 246—254 strength of, 229—232 strong acids, 92, 229, 234, 266—267 titrations, 293—309 triprotic, 248 weak acids, 92—93, 229, 234—239, 261 Acid salt, 245 Acid solutions, 256—261, 261—267 Acid strength, 229—232 Acoustic refrigerator, 173 Acrylonitrile—butadiene—styrene (ABS), 1041, 1043 Actinides, 866 electron configuration for, 555 periodic table, 33, 554, 569 Activated complex, 736 Activation energy, 736, 741 Active site, 744 Activity, 199—200, 201 Activity coefficient, 217 Addition exponential notation, A2 significant figures, A15 Addition polymerization, 1035 Addition reactions, of unsaturated hydrocarbons, 1023—1024 Additives, in PVC, 12—13 Adenine, 1056 Adenosine, 1057 Adhesive forces, 770 Adiabatic processes, 446-450 Adrenaline, 245 Adsorption, 741 Aerosol propellants, 748, 899, 902 AFM. See Atomic force microscopy Air bags, 151 Air conditioning, Freons, Index 609—610, 748, 749, 909, 921,1020 Air pollution, 174 automobile exhaust, 380, 743, 746 high-sulfur coal, 381 »al (suffix), 1030 Alanine, 1045 Alarm pheromones, 637 Alchemy, 15, 140 Alcohols, 1026—1029, 1031 Aldehydes, 1027, 1030—1031 Alexandrite, 963 Alizarin, 313 Alizarin Yellow R, 313 Alkali halides, 802 Alkali metal ions, 330, 873 Alkali metals, 568—572, 871—876 boiling point of, 570 chemical properties of, 33, 871—873 first ionization energy for, 562 melting point of, 570 periodic table, 33, 569 physical properties of, 570, 872 preparation of, 871 properties of, 568—572 reaction with water, 871—872 Alkaline battery, 483-484 Alkaline earth metals, 876—878 chemical properties of, 33 hydroxides of, 241—242 periodic table, 33, 5 69 physical properties of, 876 preparation of, 876 reaction with hydrogen, 876 reaction with nitrogen, 876 reaction with water, 876 source of, 876 Alkanes, 1013—1021 cyclic, 1020 isomerism in, 1015-1016 nomenclature of, 1016-1019 physical properties of, 1014 reactions of, 1019—1020 Alkenes, 1021—1024 Alkynes, 1022—1024 Allen, Leland C,, 589, 590 Allendoerfer, Robert, 652 Allomone, 636 Allotropes, 785 of carbon, 573, 785, 881 of phosphorus, 674, 797, 904 offln,882 Alloys, 784—785 of copper, 942 for corrosion prevention, 489 interstitial, 785 of niobium, 788 substitutional, 784 of tin, 881—882 or titanium, 937 of vanadium, 938 Alloy steel, 785 Allred, AL, 588, 589 a-particle radioactivity, 981, 982, 1004 Rutherford’s experiment, 25, 26 Alpha helix, 605, 1046, 1047 Alpha M.O.S., 638 Alum, in paper chemistry, 3—7 Aluminosilicate, 791 Aluminosilicate glass, 791 Aluminum, 879 electrolytic production of, 495—496 Hall-Heroult process, 495, 496 industrial importance of, 880 in nature, 869 orbital diagram for, 552 physical properties of, 879, 939 price over time, 496 protective oxide coating, 486 source of, 879 thermodynamic data for, All Aluminum chloride, 257, 258 Aluminum hydroxide, 242 Aluminum ion, 35 Aluminum oxide amphoteric nature of, 879 formula, 595 gems and, 963 naming of, 37 protective oxide coating of, 486 reduction of, 428 standard enthalpy of formation for, 373 Alvarez, Luis, 43 Alvarez, Walter, 43 American Chemical Society, Priestley Medal, 15 American Superconductor (ASC), 789 Americium, synthesis of, 989 Amines, 245, 1027 Amino? (prefix), 1032 a-Amino acids, in proteins, 1043-1046 2-Aminobutane, 1033 Ammine, 950 A71 A72 Index Ammonia bond angles, 631 bonding in, 653 charge distribution in, 591 chemical reactions of, 897 combustion of, 375—377 Haber process for, 72, 194, 195, 209, 704, 741, 874, 895 Kl, for, A25 Lewis structure for, 615, 653 molar volume for, 149 molecular structure of, 29, 244, 630, 897 reaction with beryllium chloride, 877 reaction with gaseous hydrogen chloride, 228 reaction with nitric oxide, 903 reaction with water, 243—244 standard enthalpy of formation for, 373 synthesis (see Ammonia synthesis) titration of hydrochloric acid with, 306—309 as weak base, 93, 244, A25 Ammonia synthesis, 894 change in concentration, 210—211 chemical equilibrium, 193—194, 198 entropy changes in, 425 equilibrium concentration, 195—196 equilibrium constant, 202—203, 208—209 exothermic nature of, 214—215 free energy of reaction, 434—435 Haber process for, 72, 194, 195, 209, 704, 741, 874, 895 partial pressures, 442 reaction quotient, 202 standard free energy for, 439—440 Ammonium acetate, pH of, 258 Ammonium chloride, 163, 164, 245, 257 Ammonium dichromate, decomposition of, 67—68 Ammonium dihydrogenphosphate, 907 Ammonium ion, 32, 38, 230 Ammonium nitrate, 89 Ammonium perchlorate, 525 Ammonium sulfate, 42 Amorphous solids, 771 Ampere (unit), 492, A16 Amphoteric substance, 231, 315 n-Amyl acetate, 1031 Amylopectin, 1053 Amylose, 1053, 1055 —ane (suffix), 1016 Angular momentum quantum number, 537, 541 Aniline, 244, 1032, A25 Animals. See Biological systems Anions, 30, 866 naming of, 35 oxyanions, 38 Annihilation, 982 Anode, 464 Antacids, 71, 241—242 Anthracene, 1026 Anthracite coal, 380 Antibonding electrons, 666 Antibonding molecular orbital, 665 Anticodon, 1059 Antifreeze, 816, 847, 1028 “Antiknock” agents, 380, 743, 883 Antimatter, 982, 983 Antimony metallurgy of, 421 physical properties of, 891 preparation of, 891 source of, 891 valence electron configuration for, 891 Antimony(III) oxide, 13 Antimony pentachloride, 891 Antimony pentafluoride, 891 Antimony sulfate, 891 Antiparticle, 982 Antiproton, 983, 1003 Antitumor agents, 954 Antlerite, 489 Apparent nuclear charge, 547 Aqua rcgia, 335 Aqueous equilibria. See Chemical equilibrium Aqueous reactions, 87—130 acid—base reactions, 98, 110—115 composition of solutions, 93—94 electrolytes, 90—93 equations for, 104—106 neutralization, 112, 113 oxidation—reduction reactions, 98, 115—130 precipitation, 98, 99—104, 106—110, 325—330 water as solvent, 88—90 Aqueous solutions, 87—130 buffered solutions, 279—293 composition of, 93—97 definition of, 87 dilute, 827 dilution, 95—97 electrical conductivity of, 90, 91 molarity, 93—94 polyprotic acids, 246—254 of salts, 254—261 standard solution, 95, 96 strong electrolytes, 90—93, 104 temperature effects for, 836—838 water as solvent, 88—90, 831—834 weak electrolytes, 90, 92-93 See also Acids; Aqueous reactions; Bases Arabinose, 1052, 1053 Aragonite, 774 Archaeology, carbon-14 dating, 990—991 Arginine, 1045 Argon boiling point of, 921 in earth’s atmosphere, 173, 921 freezing point of, 767 melting point of, 776, 921 molar heat capacity of, 357 molar volume for, 149 periodic table, 33 uses of, 922 Aromatic alcohols, 1028 Aromatic hydrocarbons, 1024—1026 Arrhenius equation, 738 Arrhenius, Svante, 90, 91, 92, 227, 736, 737 Arsenic, 212, 891 Arsenic acid, 249, A25 Arsenopyrite, 891 Artificial diamond, 814—815 Ascorbic acid, 249, A25 Asparagine, 1045 Aspartic acid, 1045 Asphalt, 379 Asphyxiation, 971 Aspirin, 1032 Astatine, 33, 914, 915 Atactic chain, 1041 -ate (suffix), 38, 44 Atmosphere (of earth), 139, 381 air pollution, 174 automobile exhaust, 380, 743, 746 combustion of sulfur- containing fuels, 912 composition of, 173—177 greenhouse effect, 381 high-sulfur coal, 381 ozone depletion, 683, 748, 749, 909 ozone layer, 909 ozone production, 746 photochemical smog, 174—175 sulfur pentafluoride, 382 Atmosphere (unit), 373 Atom in chemical equation, 65 history of term, 15 oxidation state of, 118 quantum mechanical description of, 526—530 See also Atomic structure; Atomic theory Atomic bomb, 998 Atomic clock, 523 Atomic force microscopy (AFM), 21 Atomic mass, 18, 51—54 Atomic mass units (amu), 51, 55 Atomic number, 28 Atomic radius, 556—568, 867 Atomic size, 866—868 Atomic solids, 776—777, 785—794 Atomic structure Bohr model, 519—523, 526, 527, 540 chemical properties and, 28 modern view of, 26—28, 510—572 nuclear atom, 25 plum pudding model, 24, 25 quantum mechanics, 510—572 Rutherford’s model, 25, 979 Atomic theory, of Dalton, 18—19 Atomic weight, 18, 52. See also Atomic mass Atto- (prefix), A16 Aufbau principle, 550—557 Autoionization, 231 Automobile battery, 445, 481, 483 Automobile exhaust, 380, 743, 746 Automobiles antifreeze, 816, 847, 1028 “antiknock” agents, 380, 743, 883 battery, 445, 481, 483 catalytic converter, 743, 746 exhaust, 380, 743, 746 fuel-cell-powered cars, 485 Instant Car Kooler, 806 leaded gasoline, 380 solar heating of, 804 Average atomic mass, 52, 56 Avogadro, Amedeo, 18, 19 Avogadro‘s hypothesis, 19, 20 Avogadro’s law, 144 Avogadro’s number, 54 Azeotrope, 903 Azide ion, 895 Baekeland, Leo H., 1034 Baird, Jess, 922 Bakelite, 1033, 1034 Baking soda, 71, 488—489 Balanced equation, 726 Balancing chemical equations, 65, 66—68 acid—base reactions, 111—115 coefficients in, 66, 68 half-reaction method, 123—127 oxidation—reduction reactions, 121—129 oxidation states method, 122—123 stoichiometric calculations, 68, 70—71, 75—76 Ball—and—stick model, 29—30, 605 Bananas, odor of, 1031 Bands, 782 Bar (unit), 373 Barium in nature, 869 periodic table, 33 physical properties of, 876 preparation of, 876 reaction with water, 876 source of, 876 thermodynamic data for, A21 Barium chloride, 525 Barium chromate, 99 Barium compounds, 877, A21 Barium fluoride, 320 Barium hydroxide, 241 Barium ions, 35, 106 Barium nitrate, 99—101, 104, 525 Barium salts, color of fireworks and, 524, 525 Barium sulfate, 318, 320, 320 Barium X-rays, 827 Barometer, 140, 803 Bartlett, Neil, 922 Baryte, 876 Bases, 241-244 acid—base titrations, 293—309 Arrhenius concept of, 227, 241 Bronsted—Lowry definition of, 110, 227, 228, 241 conjugate base, 227, 254 hydronium ion, 227 indicators, 309—314 Lewis definition, 944 Lewis structures, 228 organic, 1056 pH scale, 232—239 reaction with water, 244 strength of, 231, 256 strong bases, 92, 241—243 titrations, 293—309 weak bases, 93, 244 Base strength, 231, 256 Basic solutions, 254—256 Batteries, 481—486 alkaline battery, 483—484 automobile battery, 445, 481, 483 dry cell batteries, 483—484 fuel cells, 484—486 iron(VI) compounds in, 484 jump-starting, 483 lead storage battery, 481—483 mercury cells, 484 nickel—cadmium battery, 484 Bauer, Georg, 15 Bauxite, 495—496, 879 bcc unit cell. See Body—centered cubic unit cell Becker, Luann, 43 Becquerel, Antoine Henri, 24, 26, 27 Beer—Lambert law, A18, A19 Beer’s law, A20 Beethoven, Ludwig van, lead poisoning in, 883 Bell, Valerie, 155 Beni Bousera, 815 Benzaldehyde, 1030 Benzene, 244, 1024, 1026 boiling—point elevation constant for, 846 electronic structure of, 1024 freezing-point depression constant for, 846 molecular structure of, 677 substituted, 1025 Benzoic acid, 230, 231, 1031, A24 3,4-Benzpyrene, 1026 Beryllium ionization energy for, 562 orbital diagram for, 551 periodic table, 33 physical properties of, 876 preparation of, 876 source of, 876 thermodynamic data for, A21 Beryllium aluminate, 963 Beryllium chloride, 628, 877 Beryllium hydride, 877 Beryllium ion, 35 Beryllium molecule, 668 Beryllium oxide, 867, 876 Beryllium phosphide, 891 Berzelius, Jons Jakob, 19, 22 Beta-carotene, electronic absorption spectrum, 684 Beta particle, 979, 981, 1004 Beta-particle production, 981, 982 Bicarbonate ion, 38 Bicycle frames, titanium for, 939 Bidentate ligand, 944, 945 Big bang theory, 985 Bimolecular chemical reactions, 727 Binary compounds definition of, 34 naming of, 35—39 oxidation state of, 118 Type I, 35 Type II, 35—36 Type III, 38~39 Binary covalent compounds, 38—39 Binary ionic compounds formation of, 594, 597—602 naming of, 35—36 with polyatomic ions, 37—38 Binary ionic solids, 798 Binding energy, 995 Binning, Gerd K., 21 “Biodiesel” oil, 390 Biological systems alkali metal ions, 873 alkaline earth metals, 877—878 biosensors, 117 blood buffering system, 279 blood serum, 95 chemical communication in, 636—637 chlorophyll, 967, 968 copper in, 942—943 crenation, 850 DNA, 1055—1058 entropic ordering in, 415 enzymes, 740, 744, 747, 1055 freezing of fish in polar waters, 856 gecko feet, adhesive forces of, 769 hemoglobin, 969—970 high-altitude sickness, 970 human digestive enzymes, 1055 “kissing bug”, 901 ligands in, 944, 946 lithium carbonate and mood, 572 lysis, 850 natural polymers, 1043—1059 nitrogen fixation, 895—897 nitrogen in, 895 nitrogen monoxide, 676 odor of decaying flesh, 1033 photosynthesis, 387 proteins, 1043-1050 radiation, effects on body, 1002, 1004—1007 radioactivity, medical applications, 992—993 radiotracers, 992—993 RNA, 1055—1059 selenium in, 908 strength of materials, 775 transition metals in, 930 Biomolecules, 1012. See also Natural polymers; Organic chemistry Biosensors, 117 Biot, jean, 949 Bis- (prefix), 946 Bismite, 891 Bismuth, 891, 987 Bismuth-210, 987 Bismuth—214, 987 Bismuth glance, 891 Bismuth ion, reaction with water, 891 Bismuth nitrate, 891 Bismuth pentahalide, 891 Bismuth sulfide, 319 Bismuth trifluoride, 891 Bismuthyl chloride, 891 Bismuthyl ion, 891 Bisulfate ion, 38 Bituminous coal, 380 Blackbody radiation, 513 Black phosphorus, 904 Black powder, 525 Blood buffering system in, 279 hemoglobin, 969—970 nitric oxide and, 676 serum, 95 “Blowing” agent, 898 Boat form, cyclic alkanes, 1020, 1021 Body-centered cubic unit cell, 773, 781—782 Bohr, Niels, 520 Bohr model of the atom, 519—523, 526, 527, 540 Bohr radius, 540 Boiler scale, 838, 839 Boiling, 810 Boiling chips, 811 Boiling point, 417, 808, 809, 810, 816 Boiling-point elevation, 844, 845—846 Boltzmann, Ludwig E., 161, 413 Bomb calorimeter, 367 Bond angles, 63] Bond energy, 583, 607—610 Bonding, 29, 582-641 antibonding molecular orbital, 665 bond energy, 583, 607—610 bonding molecular orbital, 665 bond length, 585 bond polarity, 590—592 chemical bond, 603 in complex ions, 955—957 coordinate covalent bond, 944 Coulomb’s law, 584, 600 covalent bonds, 29, 587, 602—606 delocalized pi bonding, 678 dipole moments, 590—592 double bond, 607, 608, 655 duet rule, 612 electronegativity, 5 87—590 A73 A74 Index Bonding (continued) electron sea model, 782 enthalpy and, 608 in ethylene, 1022 exceptions to octet rule, 61 7—627 in heteronuclear diatomic molecules, 674—675 in homonuclear diatomic molecules, 667—674 hydrogen bonding, 766—767 hyperconjugation, 621, 623 intermolecular forces, 765—768 intramolecular forces, 765 ionic bond, 30—31, 584, 587 Lewis structures, 611—615 localized electron model, 610—611, 650—663, 675—676 in metals, 782, 784 models, 604—606 molecular orbital model, 664—667, 782 octet rule, 612 percent ionic character, 602 pi bond, 655, 677, 868 polar bonds, 592 polar covalent bonds, 587, 602 “pro”—bonding, 665 resonance, 616—617 sigma bond, 655, 656, 677 single bond, 607, 608 three-center bond, 877 triple bond, 607, 608, 662 VSEPRinodd,6ZZ 628—641, 679 Bonding molecular orbital, 665 Bonding pairs, 610, 612 Bond length, 585 Bond order, molecular orbital model, 666—667 Bond polarity, 5 90—592 Bond strength, 881 Boranes, 878, 879 Borax, 878 Boraxo, 878 Boron, 878 chemical properties of, 867 doping with, 793 ionization energy for, 562 orbital diagram for, 551, 669 physical properties of, 879 preparation of, 879 source of, 879 Boron hydride, 370, 877 Boron molecule, 671, 672 Boron tetrafluoride ion, 662 Boron trifluoride, 617—618, 628 Borosilicate glass, 790, 791 Boyle, Robert, 15, 141 Boyle’s law, 141—143, 144, 147 Bragg, William Henry, 744 Bragg, William Lawrence, 774 Bragg equation, 774 Brass, 784, 785, 942 Breeder reactors, 1001—1002 Brenner, R.J., 107 Brittle tin, 882 Brochantite, 489 Bromate ion, 42, 713-715 Bromcresol green, 313 Bromcresol purple, 313 Bromide ion, 35, 713—715 Bromides, solubility product of, 320, A26 Bromine atomic radius of, 566—567 electron affinity of, 566 periodic table, 33 physical properties of, 915 preparation of, 915 sources of, 915 thermodynamic data for, A21 uses of, 921 vaporization of, 424 Bromoethane, 693—694 4-Bromopentanoic acid, 1031 Bromphenol blue, 313 Bromthymol blue, 310-311, 313 Bronsted—Lowry acids and bases, 110, 227 Bronze, 881~882, 942 Brown phosphorus, 674 “Buckyballs”, 43, 797 Buffer capacity, 290-293 Buffered solutions, 279—293 buffer capacity, 290—293 calculations involving, 279—282 characteristics of, 287 exact treatment of, 287—290 Henderson—Hassebach equations, 284, 286, 290—291, 311 mechanism of, 282—287 pH of, 283, 290 Bumping, 809 Buret, 112 Burns, Stephanie, 4 Burton, William, 379 Butadiene, dimerization of, 720—722 Butane, 379, 1013, 1014, 1015 Butanoic acid, 1031 Butanone, 1030 2-Butanone, 694 Butene, 1021 Butyl group, 1016 Butyraldehyde, 1030 Cadaverine, 1033 Cadmium electron configuration for, 556 thermodynamic data for, A22 Caffeine, 63 Calcium abundance in human body, 869 abundance in nature, 869 orbital diagram for, 552 periodic table, 33 physical properties of, 876 preparation of, 876 reaction with water, 876 source of, 876 thermodynamic data for, A22 Calcium carbonate, 149, 200,494 Calcium chloride, 37 Calcium fluoride, 318—319, 320, 803 Calcium hydride, 874 Calcium hydroxide, 241, 242 Calcium ions, 35, 877 Calcium oxide, 595 Calcium phosphate, 69 Calcium sulfate, 320, 321 Californium, 989 Caliper Technologies Corp., 98 Calorimeter, 372 Calorimetry, 362-369 Camphor, colligative properties of, 846 Cancer antitumor agents, 954 radiation therapy, 993 selenium and, 908 Candela (unit), A16 Cannizzaro, Stanislao, 19, 20—22 Capillary action, 770 Captive zero, A14 Carbohydrates, 1050, 1052, 1055 Carbon, 643, 880, 1012 abundance in human body, 869 abundance in nature, 869 allotropic forms of, 573, 785, 881 average atomic mass of, 52—53, 56 “buckyballs”, 43, 797 chemical properties of, 867, 881 diatomic molecule, 671 fullerenes, 43, 785, 797 ionization energy for, 562 orbital diagram for, 551 phase diagram for, 814—815 physical properties of, 880 pi bonds in, 881 preparation of, 880 as reducing agent, 870 sources of, 880 thermodynamic data for, A22 use in metallurgy, 870 See also Diamond; Graphite Carbon-12, 51 Carbon-14 dating, 990—991 Carbonated beverages, 835 Carbonate ion, 38 Carbonates caves, 325 separation by selective precipitation, 330 solubility products for, 320, 325, A26 Carbon—carbon double bond, 608, 655, 687, 688 Carbon—carbon single bond, 608,881 Carbon—carbon triple bond, 608,688 Carbon dioxide, 582 bonding in, 656 carbonation and, 835 climate and, 381—383 dipole moment of, 591 dry ice, 794 in earth’s atmosphere, 173 in fire extinguishers, 817 formation of, 374 Henry’s law constant, 836 Lake Nyos tragedy, 839 Lewis structure for, 614, 626, 656, 788—789, 881 molar heat capacity of, 357 molar volume for, 149 phase diagram for, 816—817' production of, 881 standard enthalpy of formation for, 373 supercritical, 832 Carbon disulfide, colligative properties of, 846 Carbon fiber composites, 939 Carbon—hydrogen bond, 688 Carbonic acid, dissociation of, 247, 249, A25 Carbonic anhydrase, 740 Carbon monoxide, 881 asphyxiation by, 971 dipole moment of, 591 Henry’s law constant, 836 hydrogenation of, 1028 Lewis structure for, 881 molecular structure of, 662, 881 oxidation of, 730 reaction with nitrogen dioxide, 726—728 reaction with steam, 191—193 Carbon—nitrogen double bond, 608 Carbon—nitrogen single bond, 608, 1037 Carbon—iii'rogen triple bond, 608 Carbon—oxygen double bond, 608, 688 Carbon—oxygen single bond, 608, 688 Carbon steel, 785 Carbon suboxide, 881 Carbon tetrachloride, 806, 807, 846 Carbon tetrafluoride, 615 Carbonyl group, 1030 Carboxyhemoglobin, 971 Carboxyl group, 230, 1031 Carboxylic acids, 1027, 1031—1032 Carboxypeptidase A, 744, 745 Carlson, D.A., 107 Carnallite, 876 Carothers, Wallace H., 1034, 1039 Cars. See Automobiles Cartilage, 1043 Catalina Island, desalination plant, 851 Catalysis, 739—749 enzymes, 740, 744, 747, 1055 heterogeneous catalysis, 741—746 homogeneous catalysis, 741, 746, 748 Catalyst, 741 Catalytic converter, 743, 746 Cathode, 464 Cathode-ray tube, 23 Cathodic protection, 490 Cations, 866 complex ions, 933 naming of, 35, 36, 37 separation by selective precipitation, 329, 335, 336 Caves, 276, 277 ccp structure. See Cubic closest packed (ccp) structure Celestite, 876 Cell potential, 474-481 Cellulose, 1055 Centi— (prefix), A16 Ceramic materials, 788 Cerium hydrogen sulfate, 129 Cerium(IV) ion, redox reaction with tin(II) ion, 123, 128 CERN (European Laboratory for Particle Physics), 983 Cesium boiling point of, 570 chemical properties of, 569 electron configuration of, 570 “laser cooling”, 145 melting point of, 570 periodic table, 33 physical properties of, 570, 872 preparation of, 871 reaction with oxygen, 872 CeSium atomic clock, 523 Cesium chloride, 802 Cesium fluoride, 802 Cesium hydroxide, 241 Cesium ion, 35 CFCs. See Chlorofluorocarbons Chain theory, 950 Chair form, cyclic alkanes, 1020, 1021 Change of state, 804—811 condensation, 804, 805 critical point, 813 entropy changes associated with, 417 phase diagrams, 812—814, 814—817 sublimation, 405, 598—599, 808 supercooling, 811 superheating, 811 triple point, 813 vaporization, 804, 805 Charge balance, 262 Charge balance equation, 262, 288 Charge density, 571 Charge-to—mass ratio, 23 Charles, Jacques, 143 Charles’s law, 143—144, 147 Chelates, 944 Chelating ligands, 944 Chemical analysis, 117 Chemical bond, 603. See also Bonding Chemical change, 64 Chemical compounds. See Compounds Chemical elements abundance in nature, 868—870 allotropes, 785 atomic radius and, 556—568 atomic size and, 866—868 atomic structure of, 28 Boyle on, 15 electron affinity, 564—566 ionization energy, 560—563 isotopes of, 28 main-group elements, 554 metalloids, 569, 866 metals (see Metals) mole of, 54 nonmetals (see Nonmetals) properties of, 28 representative elements, 554, 866 semimetals, 866 spectrum of, 522 standard state of, 432 transuranium elements, 989 See also Periodic table Chemical energy, 349—353, 399 Chemical equations, 64—68 balancing, 65, 66—68 information given by, 65—66 limiting reactant, 72—75 oxidation—reduction reactions, 121—129 unbalanced, 66, 67 Chemical equilibrium, 190—217 acid—base equilibria, 267—268 activity, 199—200, 201 aqueous equilibria, 276—336 buffered solutions, 279—293 characteristics of, 193—194 common ion effect, 277 complex ions, 330—336 definition of, 190—191 as dynamic system, 191—194 equilibrium concentration, 197,206 equilibrium constant, 194—197, 201—205, 208—209 equilibrium expression, 194, 196—199, 201, 206 equilibrium position, 197 equilibrium problems, 205—209 free energy and, 437—442 heterogeneous, 200—201 homogeneous, 200 involving concentration, 194—197 law of mass action, 194, 196,200 Le Cbételier’s principle, 209—216, 234, 441 nonideal behavior, 216 of polyprotic acids, 246—254 reaction quotient, 202 real gases, 216—217 solubility, 318—325 strong acid, 234 weak acid, 234—239 Chemical formulas, 29 of a compound, 60—64 history of, 19 from names, 42 Chemical industry, divisions of, 9—10 Chemical kinetics. See Kinetics Chemical laws, 15—17 Chemical nomenclature. See Naming compounds Chemical properties atomic structure and, 28 periodic table and, 33—34 Chemical reactions acid—base, 98, 110—1 15 addition, 1023—1024 addition polymerization, 1035 aqueous, 87—130 bimolecular, 727 catalysis, 739—749 collision model for chemical kinetics, 735-739 combustion, 1019 condensation, 906, 1044 condensation polymerization, 1037 covalent bond energies and, 606—610 Dalton’s atomic theory, 18 dehydrogenation, 1020 dispr0portionation, 919 elementary step, 726 endothermic, 215, 349, 352, 353 enthalpy change and, 354—355 entropy changes in, 425—428 equilibrium constant, 194—197, 201—205, 208—209 examples of in life, 50 exothermic, 214, 349, 352, 353 femtochemistry, 707 first-order reactions, 715 free energy and, 429—433, 436-437 half-life of, 717 halogenation, 1024 Hess’s law, 369—372 hydrogenation, 1023—1024 intermediate, 726 limiting reactant, 72—75 molecularity, 726—727 neutralization, 112, 113, 363 oxidation—reduction, 98, 115—130 polymerization, 1024, 1035, 1037 precipitation, 99—104, 106—110, 325—330 rate-determining step, 727 rate laws, 708-726 reaction mechanisms, 704, 726—735 reaction rates, 704—726 reversible, 409, 417, 445—446, 708 second-order reaction, 720 spontaneous, 400—406, 703 stoichiometry, 50—77 _ substitution, 1019, 1025 termolecular, 727 types of, 97—98 unimolecular, 727 zero—order, 722 See also Chemical equilibrium Chemical shift, NMR, 692 Chemical stoichiometry. Sec Stoichiometry Chemical vapor deposition (CVD), 815 Chemical waste, nuclear waste disposal, 1004—1005 Chemist, as problem solver, 3—7 Chemistry of an atom, 28 aqueous chemistry, 87 coordination chemistry, 943—948, 954—964, 967—971 electrochemistry, 461—5 00 femtochemistry, 707 history of, 14—15, 510 industrial chemistry, 9—11 organic chemistry, 1012—1059 overview of, 1 photochemistry, 683 A75 A76 Index Chemistry (continued) problem solving in, 3—7 qualitative analysis, 329—330 scientific method, 7-9 studying, 3 work of, 2 Chernobyl nuclear accident, 1000 Chirality, 950, 953, 955, 1050 Chlor-alkali process, 499 Chlorate, 44 Chlorate ion, 38, 42 Chlorate salts, 919 Chloric acid, 44 Chloride ion, 35 Chlorides separation by selective precipitation, 329, 335—336 solubility product of, 320, A26 Chlorine abundance in human body, 869 abundance in nature, 869 carbon compound with, 921 electron affinity of, 566 gas—phase reaction with chloroform, 731—732 oxyacids of, 918 periodic table, 32, 33 physical properties of, 915 preparation of, 915 properties of, 32—33 - sources of, 915 thermodynamic data for, A22 Chlorine gas bond polarity in, 592 reaction with hydrogen sulfide, 913 Chlorite, 44 Chlorite ion, 38 Chlorobenzene, 1024 Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 749 Chloroform, 731—732, 846—909 Chlorophyll, 967, 968 Chlorous acid, 44, 230, A24 Christe, Karl 0., 895 Chromate ion, 38 Chromates, 67, 320, A26 Chromite, 938 Chromium biological function of, 967 chemical properties of, 934 electron configuration for, 553, 933—934 physical properties of, 934 preparation of, 938, 940 sources of, 993 in steel, 938 thermodynamic data for, A22 uses of, 930, 931, 938 Chromium-51, 993 Chromiulel) anions, 940 Chromium(lII) chloride, naming of, 37 Chromium compounds, 37, 67 Chromium(VI) oxide, 940 Chrysoberyl, 963 Cinnabar, 910 Cinnamaldehyde, 1030 cis isomer, 949, 954 cis—trans isomerism, 949, 1022 Clays, 791 Cleaning solution, 940 Climate, carbon dioxide and, 381»383 Closest packing arrangement, 776—777 Coagulation, 854 Coal, 380—383 Coal gasification, 383, 385 Coal slurrics, 385 Cobalt biological function of, 967 chemical properties of, 934, 941 in living organisms, 930 ores of, 941 physical properties of, 934, 941 uses of, 930, 931 Cobalt(Il) bromide, 37 Cobalt(II) chloride, 211 Cobalt compounds, 941, A22 Cobaltic ion, 37 Cobalt ions, 37 Cobaltire, 941 Cobaltous ion, 37 Cobalt(II) salts, 941 Cockroaches, 107 Codeine, 245 Coefficients, in balanced equation, 66, 68 Coffee cup calorimeter, 362, 363 Cohesive forces, 770 Collagen, 1048 Colligative properties, 844-85 3 boiling-point elevation, 844, 845—846 of electrolyte solutions, 852—853 freezing-point depression, 846—848, 855 osmotic pressure, 848—852 Collision frequency, for gas particles, 168—169 Collision model for kinetics, 735—739 Collision rate, of gas particles, 166 Colloids, 853—854, 856 Colombium, 937 Color of coordination Compounds7 959~960 of fireworks, 524—525 “Combined-cycle” turbine, 387 Combustion of alkanes, 1019 enthalpy of, 375—378 Lavoisier on, 15—16 of methane, 64—65, 119, 121, 349, 350, 368 used to determine formula of compounds, 60 Comets, spectroscopy, 522 Common ion, 277 Common ion effect, 277—279, 322—323 Common logarithm, A3—A4 Common names, 34 Complete ionic equation, 104, 105 Complex ions, 933 bonding in, 955—957 crystal field model, 957—964 definition, of, 330 equilibria, 330—334 ligand field model, 966 localized electron model, 954—957 molecular orbital model, 964—966 solubility and, 334—336 VSEPR model and, 956 Compounds, 29 Dalton‘s atomic theory, 18 law of definite proportion, 16 law of multiple proportions, 17 naming. (see Naming compounds) oxidation state of, 118 percent composition of, 58—60 taggants in, 40-41 Compression, 352 adiabatic, 447 isothermal, 411—413, 445 Computer, miniaturization, 98 Concentrated nitric acid, 903 Concentrated solution, 827 Concentrated sulfuric acid, 69, 795 Concentration cell potential, dependence of on, 474—481 chemical equilibrium and, 194—197, 210 Le Chatelier’s principle, 210—212 Concentration cells, 479—481 Conch shell, strength of, 775 Condensation (change of state), 804, 805 Condensation polymerization, 1037 Condensation reaction, 906, 1044 Condensed states, 765 Conduction bands, 784 Confidence limits, A13 Conjugate acid, 227, 254 Conjugate acid—base pair, 227 Conjugate base, 227, 254 Conservation of energy, law of, 348, 351, 399 Conservation of mass, law of, 16 Constant—pressure calorimetry, 363, 365 Constructive interference, 517, 774 Contact potential, 793 Contact process, 69, 913 Conté, Nicolas—Jacques, 586 Continuous flow processes, 10 Continuous spectrum, 518 Control rods, nuclear reactor, 1000 Convective cooling, 828 Convective layer, 828 Conversion factors, 353 Conversion of units, 8, A17 Coordinate covalent bond, 944 Coordinated Universal Time ‘ (UTC), 523 Coordination chemistry biological systems and, 967—971 bonding in complex ions, 954—957 coordination number, 943—944 crystal field model, 957—964 isomerism7 948—954 ligands, 944—948 See also Coordination compounds Coordination compounds, 943—948 in biological systems, 944, 946 biological systems and, 967—971 color of, 959—960 linear complexes, 962, 964 octahedral complexes, 957—960, 961 square planar complexes, 962—964 tetrahedral complexes, 961—962 Coordination isomerism, 949 Coordination number, 331, 943-944 Coordination theory, 950 Copolymers, 1037 Copper, 53 average atomic mass of, 53—54 biological function of, 967 chemical properties of, 934, 942 as conductor, 931 corrosion of, 486, 488 electronic configuration for, 934 electrorefining of metals, 496, 497 grain size of, 783 in living organisms, 930 nanocrystalline, 783 patina, 486, 489, 942 physical properties of, 931, 934 plating of, 466 properties of, 32, 776 “quantum corral”, 529 surface of crystals, properties of, 778 thermodynamic data for, A22 uses of, 930, 942 Copper alloys, 942 Copper carbonate, 486, 489 Copper compounds, 942, A22 Copper(II) iodate, solubility product, 320—321 Copper ions, 37 Copper plating, 466 Copper salts, color of fireworks and, 524 Copper sulfate, 489 Core electrons, 552 Corrosion, 486—490 of copper, 486, 488 of iron, 389, 440, 487 prevention of, 488—489 protective oxide coating, 486 of silver, 486 of Statue of Liberty, 488 Corrosion prevention, 486, 488—489 Corundum, 963 Cottrell precipitator, 856 Coulomb meter (unit), 590 Coulomb’s law, 584, 600 Covalent atomic radii, 567 Covalent bond energies, 606—610 Covalent bonds, 29, 587 covalent bond energies, 606-610 localized electron model, 610—61 1, 650—663, 675—676 model for, 603—606 molecular orbital model, 664—667 partial ionic character of, 602—603 sigma bond, 655, 656, 677 Covalent compounds, 118 Covalent hydrides, 875, 878 Cracking, 380 Crenation, 850 o-Cresolphthalein, 313 Cresol red, 313 Critical mass, 998 Critical point, 813 Critical reaction, 998 Critical temperature, 813 Crommie, Michael, 529 Crosslinking, 1034 Cryolite, 915 Crystal field model, 957—964 Crystalline solids, 771 body-centered cubic unit cell, 773, 781—782 closest packing arrangement, 776—777 cubic closest packed structure, 777, 780, 781, 798 face—centered cubic unit cell, 773, 777, 779, 802 hexagonal closest packed structure, 777, 779, 781, 798 lattice defects, 803—804, 884 “nanocrystalline” materials, 783 polycrystalline materials, 783 types of, 775—776 X—ray diffraction of, 771—774 Crystal violet, 313 Cubic closest packed (ccp) structure, 777, 780, 781, 798 Cupric ion, 37 Cuprous ion, 37 Curie, Irene, 988 Curie, Marie, 24, 26—27, 908 Curie, Pierre, 26-27, 908 Curium, synthesis of, 989 CVD. See Chemical vapor deposition Cyanide ion, 38, 614, 971 Cyclic alkanes, 1020 Cyclo- (prefix), 1020 Cyclobutane, 707, 1020 Cyclohexane, 1020 Cyclohexene, 1022 Cyclopentane, 1020 Cyclopropane, 1020 Cyclotron, 988 Cyranose sensor, 638 Cysteine, 1045, 1048 Cytochromes, 967 Cytosine, 1056 (125173 hybridization, 660, 661 Dacron, 1037—1038 DaimlerChrysler, NECAR, 485 Dalton, John, 16, 17, 29, 510 Davis, James H., 837 Davy, Humphry, 902 DDT, 827 de Broglie, Louis, 516, 527 de Broglie’s equation, 516, 518 Debye (unit), 590 Debye, Peter, 590 Decane, 1014 Decay series, 982—983, 984 Deci- (prefix), A16 Definite proportions, law of, 16 Degenerate orbitals, 543—544 Dehydrating agent, 903 Dehydrogenation, of alkanes, 1020 Deka- (prefix), A16 Delocalized pi bonding, 678 Democritus, 15, 510 Denaturation, proteins, 1049—1050 Dendrochronology, 991 Denitrification, 897 Dental applications laughing gas, 899, 902 tooth decay, detection of, 462 Deoxyribose, 1056 Deoxyribunucleic acid (DNA), 1055—1058 Dependent variable, A4 “Dephlogisticated air”, 15 Depletion force, 415 Depression, 572 Desalination, 850-851 Destructive interference, 517, 774 Desulfurization, of petroleum, 746 Detection devices, natural, 117 Determinate error, A9 Dextrorotatory, 951 DHA. See Dihydroxyacetone Di- (prefix), 38 Dialysis, 849—850 Diamagnetic complex, 958 Diamagnetism, 670 Diamond, 582, 583, 785—786 artificial, 814, 815 bonding in, 586 energy—level diagram for, 786 graphite conversion to diamond form, 372, 431 molecular orbitals, 791—792 molecular structure of, 776 properties of, 776 struCture of, 785—786 thermodynamic data for, A22 uses of, 787, 814 Diamond-coated products, 815 “Diamond grit”, 814 Diatomic molecules bonding in, 667—675 heteronuclear, 674—675, 688 homonuclear, 667—674 vibrational spectroscopy, 686 Diborane, 147, 370, 878, 879 1,2-Dibromoethane (EDB), 1050 Dichromate compounds, 67 Dichromate ion, 38, 940 Dicyclopentadiene, 1042 Diesel fuel, 379 Diethylenetriamine, 945 Diethyl zinc, 6—7 Differential rate law, 709, 710, 724 method of initial rates, 712—715, 825 Diffraction, 517—518 definition of, 771—772 X-ray diffraction of, 771—774 Diffraction pattern, 517—518 Diffractometer, 774 Diffusion, of gases, 162, 163—165 Digital voltmeter, 464, 465 Dihydrogen phosphate ion, 38 Dihydroxyacetone (DHA), 1051 Dilute aqueous solutions, 827 Dilution, 96—97 Dimensional analysis, A17—A18 Dimer, 720, 1037 Dimethylamine, 1032 Dimethylbutane, 1018 Dinitrogen monoxide, 38, 899, 902 Dinitrogen pentoxide, 38, 902 decomposition of, 711, 716, 738—739 Dinitrogen tetroxide, 38, 898 DinitrOgen trioxide, 38, 899, 902 2,4~Dinitrophenol, 313 Dioxygen difluoride, 42, 919 Dipeptide, 1044 Diphenylamine, 1032 Dipole—dipole forces, 766—767 Dipole moments, 5 90—592 Diprotic acids, 229, 247, 907 Dirac, Paul, 564 Dispersion forces, 767—768 Disproportionation reaction, 919 Dissociation common ion effect, 277 of electrolytes, 92 of polyprotic acids, 246—265 of salts, 254—261 of strong acids, 229, 234 of weak acid, 239—241 Dissociation constant, 232, 249, A25 Dissolving, 99. See also Solubility; Solutions Disulfide linkage, 1049 Division exponential notation, A2 significant figures, A14 DNA. See Deoxyribunucleic acid Dobereiner, Johann, 548 Dolomite, 876 Donati, Giovanni, 524 Doping of gemstones, 963 of semiconductors, 792 A77 A78 lndex d orbital, in hydrogen atom, 541-544 Double bond, 607, 608, 655 Double helix structure, DNA, 1056, 1058 Doublet, 693 Downs cell, 498 Drake, Edwin, 379 Drugs, chiral molecules, 954, 955 Dry cell batteries, 483—484 Dry ice, 796 dst3 hybridization, 658—659, 661 Dubnium, synthesis of, 989 Ductility, 32 Duet rule, 612 Earth atmosphere of, 139, 173—177, 381, 382 average temperature, 382—383 geological history of, 43 greenhouse effect, 381—382 EDB. See 1,2-Dibromoethane EDTA. See Ethylenediamine Effective nuclear charge, 547 Effluent, 114 Effusion, 162—164 Eiffel, Gustave, 488 Einstein, Albert, 514, 515, 564, 994, 1003 Einstein’s equation, 515—516, ' 519, 994 ’ Ekasilicon, 549 Electrical conductivity, 90, 91 Electric current, unit of measurement, A16 Electric power generation air pollution and, 175, 176—178 fuels cells for, 485 EICCtric power transmission, superconductivity and, 789 Electrochemistry, 461—500 batteries, 481—486 concentration cells, 479—481 corrosion, 486—490 definition of, 461—462 electrolysis, 386, 491—500 galvanic cells, 462—465, 467, 469, 471 ion-selective electrodes, 477—478 Nernst equation, 475—477 “smart” window shades, 482 sunken treasure, 494 work, 471—472 EleCtrolysis, 491—500, 870 aluminum production, 495—496 commercial processes, 495—500 Downs cell, 498 electrorefining of metals, 496—497 Hall—Heroult process, 495, 496 metal plating, 497 of sodium chloride, 498—500 of water, 386, 492—493 Electrolytes, 90—93 Electrolyte solutions, colligative properties of, 852-853 Electrolytic cell, 491 Electromagnetic radiation, 5 1 1—5 1 3 classification of, 512 diffraction of, 517—518 quanta, 514—51 6 space science and, 522 wave properties of, 516 See also Spectroscopy Electromotive force (emf), 464, 471 Electron acceptor, 121 Electron affinity, 564—566 Electron capture, 982 Electron configuration, 555, 593—597 Electron correlation problem, 546, 664 Electron density map, 539 Electron donor, 121 Electronegativity, 587—590, 914, 915 Electronic nose, 638 Electronic spectroscopy, 682-684 Electronic tongue, 638 Electronic transitions, 680, 682 Electron-pair repulsion, 616 Electrons, 23—24 antibonding electrons, 666 atomic structure and, 27 Bohr model, 519—523, 526, 539, 540 bonding pairs, 610, 612 core electrons, 552 electronegativity, 587—5 90 lone pair, 610, 612 orbitals, 527 valence electrons, 552, 611 as waves, 526, 529 Electron sea model, 782 Electron spin, 545, 564—565 Electron spin quantum number, 545 Electrorefining, 496—497 Electrostatic precipitator, 856 Electrostatic repulsion, 853 Elementary step, 726 Elementary Treatise on Chemistry (Lavoisier), 16 Elements. See Chemical elements Elephants, poaching of ivory, 52 emf (electromotive force), 464, 471 Emissions, scrubbing, 176—177, 242, 911 Emission spectrum, of hydrogen, 518 Empirical formula, 61, 62, 63, 64 Enantiomers, 951, 955 EndOthermic process, 420 Endothermic reaction, 215, 349, 352, 353 Endpoint, 112 »ene (suffix), 1021 Energy activation energy, 736, 741 chemical energy, 349—353, 399 conversion to different forms, 348 definition of, 348 Einstein’s equation, 515—516 electromagnetic radiation, 511—513 heating a gas, 357—362 internal energy, 351 kinetic energy, 348 lattice energy, 597—602 law of conservation of energy, 348, 351, 399 of photon, 514 Planck’s constant, 513 potential energy, 348, 399 quanta, 514—516 quantized energy levels, 534 of radiation, 1006 sources of, 379—390 spontaneous processes, 400—406, 703 thermal energy, 399 threshold energy, 736 transformation of, 399 units of, 161 See also Fuels Energy levels, quantized, 522 Energy source wind as, 384 See also Fuels Energy transfer, 348 English system, A15 ENIAC, 794 Enrichment of uranium, 164—165 Enthalpy, 354—355 bonding and, 608 changes in, 370 heating a gas, 357—362 Hess’s law, 369—372 of reaction, 364 standard enthalpy of formation, 372—378 third law of thermodynamics, 426—428 Enthalpy of formation, 372—373, 375—378 Enthalpy of fusion, 808, 809 Enthalpy of hydration, 830 Enthalpy of solution, 829 Enthalpy of vaporization, 805, 807 Entropic forces, 415 Entropy, 401—406 absolute entropy, 426—428 definition of, 413—416 heat and, 420—422 as organizing force, 415 physical change and, 416—418 second law of thermodynamics, 415, 418—419, 425 spontaneity and, 402—403 standard entropy, 427 temperature dependence and, 416—417 Entropy change in chemical reactions, 425—428 spontaneity and, 420—422 temperature and, 419—420 Environmental issues acid rain, 175, 176, 226, 742 air pollution, 174 automobile exhaust, 380, 743, 746 catalytic converter, 743, 746 chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 749 fossil fuels, 347—348 Freons, 609—610, 748, 749, 909, 921, 1020 greenhouse effect, 381 groundwater treatment with iron beds, 120 industrial thermal pollution, 837—838 lead pollution, 883—884 smog, 174 sulfur dioxide pollution, 175—176 Enzymes, 740, 744, 747, 1055 Ephedrine, 245 Epsomite, 910 Equations for aqueous reactions, 104—106 charge balance equation, 262, 288 complett ionic equation, 104, 105 equilibrium expression, 194, 196—199, 201, 206 Henderson—Hasselbalch equations, 284, 286, 290—291, 311 material balance equation, 262, 288 molecular equations, 104, 105 net ionic equation, 104, 105 522 also Chemical equations Equilibrium. 522 Chemical equilibrium Equilibrium concentration, 197, 206 Equilibrium constant, 194—197, 201—205, 208—209 nonideal behavior, 216—217 redox reactions, 478—479 standard free energy and, 439 strong acid, 234 temperature dependence of, 441—442 weak acid, 234—239 Equilibrium expression, 194, 196—199, 201, 206, 228 charge balance, 262 strong acid, 234 weak acid, 234-239 Equilibrium partial pressure, 197 Equilibrium position, 197, 210 Equilibrium pressures, 203~205, 210 Equilibrium vapor pressure, 805 Equivalence point, 112 definition, 302 indicators, 309—314 pH meter, 256, 257, 280, 281,309 strong acid—strong base titrations, 294—297, 311—312 weak acid-strong base titrations, 297—306 weak base—strong acid titrations, 306—309 Equivalent Lewis structures, 622 Erements, Mikhail, 892 Eriochrome Black T, 313 Erythrosin B, 313 Esters, 1027, 1031—1032 Ethanal, 1030 Ethane, 22, 357, 379, 1013, 1014 Ethanol, 1027, 1028 formation of, 433 as fuel, 390, 1028 industrial production of, 1028 Lewis structure for, 844 percent composition of, 58 reaction with acetic acid, 1031 reaction with oxygen, 66—67 solubility of, 89, 90 Ethene, 1021 Ethers, 1027 Ethyl- (prefix), 1016 Ethyl alcohol, 1027 Ethylamine, 1032 molecular structure of, 244 as weak base, 244, A25 Ethylene, 653 bonding in, 653—655 Lewis structure for, 653, 655, 1021 polymers based on, 1038~1043 as ripening agent for fruit, 896 Ethylenediamine (EDTA), 944,945 Ethylene glycol, 847, 1028 Ethyl ether, colligative properties of, 846 Ethyl group, 1016 Ethyne, 1022 ETS-4, 155 European Laboratory for Particle Physics, 983 Evaporation, 805 Exa— (prefix), A16 Exact numbers, A14 Excluded-volume force, 415 Exclusion principle, 545 Exhaust gases, scrubbing, 176—177, 242, 911 Exothermic process, 420 Exothermic reaction, 214, 349, 352, 353 Expansion, 352 adiabatic, 447 isothermal, 406—410, 412—413, 445 Experiments scientific method, 7, 8 uncertainty in measurement, A8—A13 Explosives fireworks, 524—525 nitrogen-based, 893—894 tagging, 40 Exponential notation, A1—A5 Extremophiles, 747 Extremozymes, 747 Face—centered cubic unit cell, 773, 777, 779, 802 Family, periodic table, 33 Faraday (unit), 472 Faraday, Michael, 472 Fat-soluble vitamins, 834 Feldspar, 791 Femto- (prefix), A16 Femtochemistry, 707 Femtosecond spectroscopy, 730 Fermilab, 1003 Ferric ions, 36, 37, 106 Ferrochrome, 938 Ferrofluids, 855 Ferrous ion, 36, 37 Ferrovanadium, 938 Fertilizers, phosphorus in, 907 Fibrous proteins, 1043 Fire extinguishers, 817 Firefighting halons, 749 self—contained breathing apparatus, 872 Firewalking, 371 Fireworks, 524—525 First ionization energy, 560—562 First law of thermodynamics, 351, 399, 400, 446 First order, 711 First—order rate laws, 715—719, 725 First-order reaction, 715, 717—719 First—row transition metals, 937—943 electron configuration of, 933—934, 935—937 ionization energy, 934~935 oxidation state, 934—935 physical properties of, 934 standard reduction potential, 934, 935 Fish, freezing of fish in polar waters, 856 Fission, 997—1002 Fission bombs, 998 Five—component glass, 792 Fixing process, photography, 917 Flame retardants, 921 Fleming, Alexander, 59 Fluids, magnetic fluids, 855 Fluid seal, 855 Fluorapatite, 318, 891, 906, 915 Fluoridation, of water, 318 Fluoride ion, 35, 916 Fluorides, solubility product, 320, A26 Fluorine abundance in nature, 869 electron affinity of, 566, 868 electronegativity of, 914, 915 orbital diagram for, 551 oxidation state of, 118—119 oxyacid of, 919 periodic table, 33 physical properties of, 915 thermodynamic data for, A22 Fluorine gas, reaction of nitrogen dioxide with, 728—729 Fluorine molecule, 672 Fluorospar, 915 Foaming, plastics, 898 forbital, in hydrogen atom, 541—544 Force constant, 686 Forensics, taggants, 41 Formal charge, octet rule, 621—627 Formaldehyde, 1030 Formation constants, 331 Formulas of a compound, 60—64 chemical formula (see Chemical formula) empirical formula, 61, 62, 63, 64 molecular formula, 62, 63, 64 structural formula, 29 Forward bias, 796 Fossil fuels, 347, 379—383 coal, 380—383 gasoline, 377, 379, 380, 743, 883 natural gas, 379 petroleum and petroleum fractions, 379—380 Fractional charge, 587 Francium, 33, 569 Frasch process, 871, 910—911 Free energy, 422—425 absolute free energy, 438 chemical equilibrium and, 437—442 chemical reactions and, 429—433, 436—437 pressure, dependence on, 433—437 standard free energy change, 429 standard free energy of formation, 432 as state function, 430 work and, 442—444 Free expansion, 407 Free radical, 1005, 1035 Freezing, of fish in polar waters, 856 Freezing point, 767—768 Freezing—point depression, 846—848, 855 Frenkel defects, 803 , Freons, 609—610, 748, 749, 909, 921, 1020 Frequency (electromagnetic radiation), 511—5 12 Frequency factor, 738 Frictional heating, 348 Fructose, 1052, 1053 Fruit, protective treatment after picking, 896 Fuel cells, 484—486 Fuels coal slurries, 385 energies of combustion of, 368 ethanol, 390, 1028 gasohol, 390, 1028 gasoline, 377, 379, 380, 743, 883 hydrogen as, 385—390, 875—876 kerogen, 390 methanol, 122, 385, 390 nitrous oxide in fuel mixture, 902 old tires, 387 residual oil, 385 A79 A80 Index Fuels (continued) sunflower oil, 390 syngas, 383, 385 Fullerenes, 43, 785, 797 Functional groups, 1027 “Fused” benzene rings, 1026 Fusion, 997, 1002 Fusion reactors, 1002 Galactose, 1052 Galena, 882, 910 Galileo, 9 Gallium chemistry of, 879 electron configuration for, 553 melting point of, 570 physical properties of, 570, 879 preparation of, 879 source of, 879 Gallium oxide, 42 Galvani, Luigi, 465 Galvanic cells, 462—465, 467, 469, 471 batteries, 481—486 different from electrolytic cell, 491 Galvanizing, 488—489 Galvanizing steel, 943 y ray, 9, 25, 982, 1004 Garrett, Steven L, 173 Gas chromatography, of cockroaches, 107 Gaseous diffusion, 165 Gases, 139—178, 746 Avogadro’s hypothesis, 19, 20 Bronsted-Lowry definitions, 228 change of state, 804—811 collision of gas particles with container walls, 166—167 compression, 352 concentration and chemical equilibrium, 193—197 critical pressure, 813 critical temperature, 813 diffusion of, 162, 163—165 early experiments, 140—141 effusion of, 162—163 expansion, 352 Henry’s law, 835-836, 839 intermolecular collisions, 168—170 kinetic energy of, 158—159 kinetic molecular theory of, 154-162, 166—167, 170 Le Chatelier‘s principle, 209—216 mean free path, 169—170 molar heat capacity of, 356—357 phase diagrams, 812—813, 814—817 piston, 352 pressure and chemical equilibrium, 197—199 quantitative kinetic molecular model of, 156—162 real gases, 170—173, 216-217 solubility in water, 837 standard atmosphere, 140, 141 standard temperature and pressure, 148 stoichiomerry, 148—150 symbol for, 65 thermodynamics of ideal gases, 355—362 units of pressure, 140—141 universal gas constant, 145 van der Waals equation, 171~172 vapor pressure, 152 work, 352 See also Gas laws; Ideal gas Gas laws, 141—148 Avogadro’s law, 144 Boyle’s law, 141—143, 144, 147 Charles’s law, 143-144, 147 Dalton’s law of partial pressures, 150—154 Graham’s law of effusion, 163,_164 ideal gas law, 144—148, 171 Gasohol, 390, 1028 Gasoline, 377, 379 “antiknock” agents, 380, 743, 883 leaded, 380 “Gas sylvestre”, 140 Gay-Lussac, Joseph Louis, 18 Geckos, adhesive forces of feet, 769 Geiger-Muller counter, 991 Gems, color of, 963 General Motors, fuel cells, 485 Genes, 1057 Genetic damage, from radioactivity, 1005 Geometrical isomerism, 949 Germanium, 880, 881 preparation of, 880 properties of, 549, 880 source of, 880 Geubelle, Philippe, 1042 Gibbs, Josiah Willard, 422 Giga- (prefix), A16 Glass, 790, 791, 922 Glass electrode, 477 Glauberite, 910 Globular proteins, 1043 Glucose, 845—846, 1052. 1054 Gluons, 1003 Glutamic acid, 1045 Glutamine, 1045 Glyceraldehyde, 1052 Glycerol, 770 Glycine, 1045 Glycogen, 1055 cx-Glycosidases, 1055 Glycoside linkate, 1053 Gold crystalline structure of, 773 electronic configuration of, 565 karat value, 942 physical properties of, 564, 931 Gold foil, tat—particle bombardment of, 25, 26 Golf clubs, materials for, 792 Goodyear, Charles, 1034 Goudsmit, Samuel, 545 Graham’s law of effusion, 163, 164 Graham, Thomas, 162 Grains, 783 Grams, conversion to atomic mass units, 55 Graphite, 582, 583, 785—786 atomic structure of, 786 bonding in, 586 conversion to diamond form, 372, 431 in pencils, 586 structure of, 785 thermodynamic data for, A22 uses of, 787, 814 Gravimetric analysis, 109, 110 Gravitons, 1003 Gray (unit), 1006 Gray tin, 882 Greenhouse effect, 381 Gresham, T.L., 12 Ground state, 520 Groundwater contamination, iron bed for remediation, 120 Group 1A elements, 33, 36, 241, 569, 866, 871—873 chemical properties of, 866 first ionization energy for, 562 ions with noble gas electron configurations, 595 physical properties of, 570, 872 preparation of, 871 Group 1 ions, mixed chloride precipitates of, 335—336 Group 2A elements, 33, 36, 241, 569, 866, 876—878 chemical properties of, 867, 877 ions with noble gas electron configurations, 595 physical properties of, 876 preparation of, 876 source of, 876 Group 3A elements, 33, 569, 866, 878—880 chemical properties of, 867, 880 halogens, compounds with, 920 ions with noble gas electron configurations, 595 physical properties of, 879 preparation of, 879 sources of, 879 Group 4A elements, 33, 569, 866, 880—884, 1012 chemical properties of, 867, 884 halogens, compounds with, 920 physical properties of, 880 preparation of, 880 5 sources of, 880 Group SA elements, 33, 569, 866, 890, 891-893 chemical properties of, 868, 891—892 covalent bonding in, 892 halogens, compounds with, 920 physical properties of, 891 , pi bonding in, 893 preparation of, 891 sources of, 891 Group 6A elements, 33, 569, 866, 890, 908, 914 chemical properties of, 868 halogens, compounds with, 920 ions with noble gas electron configurations, 595 in nature, 914 physical properties of, 908 preparation of, 908 sources of, 908 Group 7A elements, 33, 569, 866, 890, 914-921 chemical properties of, 868 ions with noble gas electron configurations, 595 physical properties of, 915 preparation of, 915 sources of, 915 Group SA elements, 33, 569, 866, 890, 921—924 atmospheric abundance of, 921 boiling point of, 921 first ionization energy for, 562 freezing point of, 767 melting point of, 921 Groups, periodic table, 33, 554, 866 Guanine, 1056 Guldberg, Cato Maximilian, 194 Gypsum, 906, 910 Haber, Fritz, 194, 209, 741 Haber process, 72, 194, 195, 209, 704, 741, 874, 895 Hadrons, 1003 Hafnium, electron configuration for, 556 Hair composition of, 1043 permanent waving of, 1049 Halates, 918 Half-life, 25 of first-order reaction, 717—719 in radioactive decay, 9867987 Half—reaction method, 123—127 Half-reaction potential, 466 Halfereactions, 461 balancing, 462 standard reduction potential, 465—471 Halfway point, titration, 300 Halic acids, 918 Halide ions, 914, 917 Halite, 915 Halites, 918 Hall, Charles M., 495 Hall—Heroult process, 495, 496 Halogenation, of unsaturated hydrocarbons, 1024 Halogen compounds, 919—921 Halogens, 890, 914—921 chemical properties of, 33 compounds with nonmetals, 919, 920 electron affinities of, 566 electronegativity of, 914, 915 interhalogen compounds, 919—920 in nature, 914 oxyacids with, 918—919 oxyanions, 918—919 periodic table, 33, 569 production of, 871 reaction with carbon, 919 reaction with sulfur, 914 Halohydrocarbons, 1027 Halons, 749 Halous acid, 918 Hamiltonian, 527, 530 Hard water, 242—243, 878 Hassium, 34 hcp structure. See Hexagonal closest packed (hcp) structure HDPE. See High-density polyethylene Heat cyclic expansion—Compression process, 406v413 definition of, 349 endothermic reaction, 215, 349, 352, 353 entropy and, 420—422 exothermic reaction, 214, 349, 352, 353 temperature different from, 348—349 Heat capacity, 362, 363—369 Heat flow experiments, 373 Heating energy and enthalpy, 357— 362 ideal gas at constant volume, 355 polyatomic gas, 356—357 Heating curve, 808 Heating oil, 379 Heat of fusion, 808 Heat of hydration, 830 Heat of solution, 829, 843 Heat of vaporization, 804 Heat packs, 389 Heat radiation, 371 Hecto- (prefix), A16 Heisenberg, V’erner, 526, 528 Heisenberg uncertainty principle, 528—530, 545 Helium, 921—922 boiling point of, 921 in earth’s atmosphere, 173, 921 freezing point of, 767 melting point of, 921 molar heat capacity of, 357 molar volume for, 149 orbital diagram for, 550 orbitals in, 546—547 periodic table, 33 source of, 921 uses of, 921 Hematite, A22 Heme complex, 967, 968 Hemley, R.]., 571 Hemoglobin, 969-970 Henderson—Hasselbach equations, 284, 286, 290—291, 311 Henry, William, 835 Henry’s law, 835—836, 839 Hepta- (prefix), 38 Heptane, 379, 1014 Heptose, 1050 Heroult, Paul, 495 Hess’s law, 369—372 Heterogeneous catalysis, 741—746 Heterogeneous equilibrium, 200—201 Heteronuclear diatomic molecule, 688 Hex— (prefix), 1016 Hexa- (prefix), 38 Hexadentate ligand, 944 Hexagonal closest packed (hcp) structure, 777, 779, 781, 798 Hexanc, 379, 844, 1014 Hexose, 1050, 1052 HFC-134a, 749 High altitudes, 970—971 High-altitude sickness, 970 High-density polyethylene (HDPE), 1038 High—spin case, 959 High—temperature cracking, 380 Hill, Julian, 1034 Hiroshima, bom’b, 998 Histidine, 1045 7 H0, Wilson, 730 Hodgkin, Dorothy, 59 Holes in closest packing, 798—801 in semiconductors, 793 Homogeneous catalysis, 741, 746, 748 Homogeneous equilibrium, 200 Homonuclear diatomic molecules, bonding, 667—674 Homopolymer, 1037 Honeybees, chemical communication by, 636, 637 Human body, abundance of elements in, 869 Hund, F.H., 551 Hund’s rule, 551 Hybridization in complex ions, 956 d5p3,660,661 definition of, 651 dsp3,658—659,661 517, 656—658, 661 sp2,653—655,661 sp3,651—653,654,661 Hydrated aluminum(III) ion, acid dissociation constant for, 230 Hydration, 88 Hydration energy, 5 71 Hydrazine, 898 manufacture of, 898 molecular structure of, 898 reaction with oxygen, 898 as weak base, A25 Hydrazoic acid, 151 Hydride ion, 35 Hydrides, 389, 767, 874 Hydro- (prefix), 44 Hydrobromic acid, 44 Hydrocarbon derivatives, 1026—1033 Hydrocarbons, 379 alkenes and alkynes, 1021—1024 aromatic, 1024—1026 common hydrocarbons, 379 normal, 1014 saturated, 1013—1021 straight-chain, 1014 unbranched, 1014 unsaturated, 1013 Hydrochloric acid, 44, 92, 229, 918 molarity of, 93—94 pH of, 234, 235—237 reaction with sodium hydrogen carbonate, 65—66 titration with ammonia, 306—309 titration with sodium hydroxide, 312 Hydrocyanic acid, 44 acid dissociation constant for, 230,A24 dissociation of, 256 Hydrofluoric acid, 44, 918 acid dissociation constant for, 230,A24 dissociation of, 277—279 Hydrogen abundance in human body, 869 abundance in nature, 869 atomic spectrum of, 518— 519 average atomic mass of, 45 Bohr model, 519—523, 526, 539 chemical reactions of, 873—876 combustion of, 368, 385—386,388 in earth’s atmosphere, 173 emission spectrum of, 518 as fuel, 385—390, 875—876 industrial uses of, 874 interaction of hydrogen atoms, 585 large-scale production of,i386 molar heat capacity of, 357 molar volume for, 149 orbital diagram for, 550 orbitals in, 540—545 production of, 870-871 Schrodinger wave equation for, 536—538 in solid phase, 571 thermodynamic data for, A22 Hydrogenation reactions, of alkenes and alkynes, 1023—1024 Hydrogen bonding, 766—767 Hydrogen bromide dipole moment of, 59] physical properties of, 916 preparation of, 916 Hydrogen carbonate ion, 38 Hydrogen chloride bond polarity in, 592 dipole moment of, 591 enthalpy of fusion of, 807 melting point of, 806, 916 physical properties of, 916 l\81 A82 Index Hydrogen chloride (continued) preparation of, 915 reaction with ammonia, 228 “Hydrogen—chlorine cannon”, 915 Hydrogen cyanide, 303-304 Hydrogen fluoride bonding in, 587 dipole moment of, 590, 591 energy level diagram for, 675 formation of, 198—199, 203—204, 607—608 hydrogen bonding in, 916 Lewis structure for, 615 physical properties of, 916 preparation of, 915 as weak acid, 916,917 Hydrogen gas industrial production of, 873—874 industrial uses of, 874 reaction with nitric oxide, 732—735 as reducing agent, 870 Hydrogen halides, 915—918 dissociation of in water, 917—918 physical properties of, 916 preparation of, 915 Hydrogen iodide dipole moment of, 591 enthalpy of fusion of, 807 melting point of, 806, 916 physical properties of, 916 preparation of, 916 Hydrogen ion, 35 Hydrogen molecule Henry’s Iaw constant, 836 molecular structure of, 664-666 Hydrogen phosphate ion, 38 Hydrogen sulfate ion, 38,230,A24 Hydrogen sulfide, 913 bond polarity in, 593 reaction with chlorine, 913 selective precipitation with, 328 Hydrogen sulfites, 912 Hydroiodic acid, 44 Hydronium ion, 227 Hydrophilic side chains, 1044 Hydrophobic side chains, 1044 Hydrosulfuric acid, 44, 249, A25 Hydroxide ion, 38, 92, 111 Hydroxide ions strong acid—strong base titrations, 294—297, 311—312 weak acid—strong base titrations, 297—306 Hydroxides, solubility products of, 320, A26 Hydroxyapatite, 318 Hydroxyl group, 1026 Hyperconjugation, 621, 623 Hypertonic solution, 850 Hypervitaminosis, 834 Hypo- (prefix), 38 “Hypo” (photography), 917 Hypochlorite, 44 Hypochlorite ion, 38 Hypochlorous acid, 44, 229, 919 acid dissociation constant for, 230, A24 molecular structure of, 231 Hypofluorous acid, 919 Hypohalites, 918 Hypohalous acid, 918 Hypophosphorous acid, 907 Hypothesis, scientific method, 7, 8 Hypotonic solution, 850 -ic (suffix), 36, 44 Ice density of, 816 freezing—point depression, 846 melting of, 765 molecular structure of, 776, 796, 875 pressure, effect of on, 815-816 -ide (suffix), 35 Ideal gas, 15, 143 adiabatic expansion—compression of, 446—448 adiabatic processes, 446—450 enthalpy of, 434 ‘ entropy of, 434 expansion of, 403—405 isothermal expansion and compression of, 406—413, 445 Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law, 161 molar volume of, 148, 149 properties of, 154—155 thermodynamic properties of, 359 thermodynamics of, 355—362 Ideal gas equation, 197 Ideal gas law, 144—148, 171 Ideal solution, 842 IFR. See Integral fast reactor Ilmenite, 937 Immunity, nitric oxide and, 676 Independent variable, A4 Indeterminacy principle, 52S Indeterminate error, A9 Indicators. See Acid~base indicators Indium, 879 Industrial chemistry, 9—11 Industrial emissions, scrubbing, 176—177, 242, 911 Industrial thermal pollution, 837—838 Industrial waste, nuclear waste disposal, 1004-1005 Inert gases, 634 Inert pair effect, 879, 880 Infinite—step compression, 411—413 Infinite-step expansion, 408—410 Infrared radiation, 381, 522 Initial rate, method of, 712—715, 725 Insects “kissing bug”, 901 pheromones, 637 Insoluble, 102 Instantaneous rate, 706 Instant Car Kooler, 804 Integral fast reactor (IFR), 1000-1001 Integrated circuits, 794—795 Integrated first-order rate law, 715~719, 725, 984 Integrated rate laws, 710, 715—724 first-order rate laws, 715—719, 725, 984 pseudo-first-order rate law, 724 for reactions with more than one reactant, 723-724 second—order rate laws, 720-722, 725 summary of, 725 zero-order rate law, 722—723, 725 Integrated second-order rate law, 720, 725 Integrated zero-order rate law, 722—723, 725 Intensive property, 468 Interhalogen compounds, 919—920 Intermediate, 726 Intermolecular collisions, gases, 168—170 Intermolecular forces, 765—768 Internal energy, 351 International System. See SI system International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), 555, 556 Interstitial alloy, 785 Interstitial hydrides, 875 Intramolecular forces, 765 Iodide ion, 35 Iodides, solubility product, 320, A26 Iodine analyzing for, 914 electron affinity of, 566 periodic table, 33 physical properties of, 915 preparation of, 915 as radiotracer, 993 sources of, 915 sublimation of, 405 thermodynamic data for, A22 Iodine-131, 981, 992, 993 Ion. See Ions Ion exchange, 878 Ion exchange resin, 878 Ionic bond, 30—31, 584, 587 Ionic compounds, 254 binary ionic compounds, naming of, 35—37 formationof, 584 with polyatomic ions, 37-38 predicting formulas, 594-595 Type I binary ionic compounds, 35 Type II binary ionic compounds, 35—36 See also Ions; Salts Ionic hydrides, 874 Ionic liquids, 837 Ionic size, 595-597 Ionic solids, 32, 775, 798—803, A26 Ionization energy, periodic table and, 560—563 Ionization potential, 540, 563 Ion pairing, 852 Ion product, 325 Ion-product constant, 232 Ions Coulomb’s law, 584, 600 definition of, 30 electrolysis of mixtures of ions, 493 electron configurations and sizes, 593—597 formation of, 30 isoelectronic ions, 596—597 oxidation state of, 118 oxyanions, 38 polyatomic, 32 size of, 595—597 See also Anion; Cation; Ionic compounds Ion—selective electrodes, 477—478 Iridium, 43 Iron chemical properties of, 934, 941 corrosion of, 389, 440, 487 groundwater treatment with, 120 in living systems, 869, 930, 967—971 in nature, 869 oxidation of, 389 physical properties of, 931, 934, 941 protective oxide coating, 486 as reducing agent, 120 rusting of, 389, 440 sources of, 993 thermodynamic data for, A22 uses of, 930 Iron(Vl) compounds, batteries with, 484 Iron—69, 993 Iron complexes, in living organisms, 930 Iron compounds, 941 in living organisms, 930, 967—971 naming of, 36 thermodynamic data for, A22 Iron ions, 36, 37 Iron ore, 129 Irreversible process, 445 Isobutanc, 1015 Isobutyl group, 1016 Isoelectronic ions, 596—597 Isoleucine, 1045 Isomerism, 948—954 alkancs, 1015—1016 chirality, 950, 953, 955, 1050 cis—trans isomerism, 949, 1022 coordination isomerism, 949 enantiorncrs, 951, 955 geometrical isomerism, 949, 951 linkage isomerism, 949 monosaccharides, 1050 optical isomerism, 949 stereoisomerism, 948, 949—954, 1022 structural isomerism, 948, 949, 1015 IsoPentane, 1015 Isopentyl acetate, 56-57 Isopropyl alcohol, 1027 Isopropyl group, 1016 Isotactic chain, 1041 Isotag markers, 40, 41 Isothermal compression, 411—413, 445 Isothermal expansion, 406—410, 412—413, 445 Isothermal process, 406—413, 445 Isotopes, 28 atomic mass and, 52 “buckyballs”, 43 elephant ivory, composition of, 52 of uranium, 164 -ite (Suffix), 38, 44 IUPAC. See InternatiOnal Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry Ivory, 52 Jet fuel, 379 Johnson, William L., 792 Joliot, Frederick, 988 Jorgensen, Sophus Mads, 950 Jouk(unn),161,353 J%ube,141 Juglone, 636 Jump-starting, battery, 483 Junction potential, 793 Junction transistor, 794 K, (acid dissociation constant), 228 Kp (equilibrium partial pressure), 197—199 KSp (solubility product), 319—321 Kw (dissociation constant), 232 Kairomones, 636—637 Kaolinite, 791 Karnite, 879 Kekulé, August, 19, 20 Kelvin (unit), A16 Kelvin, Lord, 23 Kelvin scale, 148, 160, 434 Kerogen, 390 Kerosene, 379 Ketones, 1027, 1030—1031 Kilo- (prefix), A16 Kilogram (unit), A16 Kinetic energy, 158-159, 348 Kinetic molecular theory of gases, 154—162, 170, 746 Kinetics, 703-749 activated complex, 736 activation energy, 736 Arrhenius equation, 738 boiling point, 808, 809, 810, 816 catalysis, 739—749 changes of state, 804—811 collision model for, 735—739 differential rate law, 709, 710,724 first—order rate laws, 715—719, 725 half-life, 986—987 integrated rate law, 710, 715—724 melting point, 806, 807, 808 method of initial rates, 712—715, 725 order of reactant, 708 pseudo-first-order rate law, 724 of radioactive decay, 984—987 rate constant, 708, 737—739 rate—determining step, 727 rate laws, 708—726 reaction mechanisms, 726— 735 reaction rates, 704—726 second—order rate laws, 720—722, 725 spontaneous processes, 400-406, 703 steady—state approximation, 732—735 transition state, 736 zero-order rate law, 722—723, 725 Kinetic stability, 979 “Kissing bug”, 901 Koopman’s theorem, 560 'Krypton, 922 atmospheric abundance of, 921 boiling point of, 921 in earth’s atmosphere, 173 effect on human body, 1006 electron configuration for, 553 freezing point of, 767 melting point of, 921 periodic table, 33 Krypton compounds, 923 K—T boundary, 43 Kuznick, Steven, 155 Lactic acid, 240, A24 Lake Nyos tragedy, 839 Lanthanide contraction, 936 Lanthanides, 866, 936 electron configuration for, 555 periodic table, 33, 554, 555, 569 “Laser cooling”, 145 Lasers, electronic spectroscopy, 683—684 Lattice, 771 Lattice defects, 803-804, 884 Lattice energy, 5 97—602 Laughing gas, 899, 902 Lavoisier, Antoine, 9, 15—16, 495 Law of conservation of energy, 348, 351, 399 Law of conservation of mass, 16 Law of definite proportions, 16 Law of effusion, 163, 164 Law of mass action, 194,196,200 Law of multiple proportions, 17 Law of partial pressure, 150—154 Laws of chemistry, 15—17 Laws of thermodynamics first law, 351, 399, 400 second law, 415, 418—419, 425 third law, 426—428 LDPE. See Low-density polyethylene Lead chemistry of, 884 half—lives of nuclides, 987 history of, 882 physical properties ofl 550,880 preparation of, 880 production of, 870 source of, 880 thermodynamic data for, A22 Lead-206, 987 Lead-210, 987 Lead-214, 987 Lead(II) acetate, 882 Lead—based paint, 883 Lead bromide, solubility product, 320 Lead chloride, solubility product, 320 Leaded gasoline, 380 Lead fluoride, solubility product, 320 Lead(IV) halides, 884 Leading zero, A14 Lead iodide, 320, 326 Lead ions, 37 Lead(II) oxide, 884 Lead(IV) oxide, 884 Lead poisoning, 882, 883 Lead storage batteries, 481—483 Lead sulfate, 103, 320 LEAR. See Low Energy Antiproton Ring Le Chételier’s principle, 209—216, 234, 441 concentration, 210—211 pressure and, 212—214 Leclanché, George, 483 Lee, David 5., 792 LE model. See Localized electron (LE) model Length, unit of measurement, A16 Lepidolite, 871 Leptons, 1003 Leucine, 1045 Leucippus, 510 Levorotatory, 951 Lewis, G.N., 514, 604, 611 Lewis structures, 228 bonding, 611—615 duet rule, 612 equivalent Lewis structures, 622 octet rule and, 612, 617—619 resonance, 616-617 Libby, Willard, 990 Ligand field model, 966 Ligands, 330—334, 944—948 Light diffraction of, 517—518 dual nature of, 516 photoelectric effect, 514—5 15 plane-polarized, 949 quanta, 514—516 as wave phenomenon, 516 Lignite, 380 Lime, 200, 242 Lime-soda process, 242 Limestone, 494 acid rain and, 176—177 in caves, 276, 277, 325 A83 Index A84 Limiting reactant, 72—75 Linear accelerator, 988, 999 Linear complexes, 962, 964 Linear equation, A4 Linear low-density polyethylene, 1038 Linkage isomerism, 949 Liquefaction, of air, 870 Liquidmetal Golf, 792 “Liquid O-ring” seal, 855 Liquid oxygen, 673 Liquids, 768—771 boiling point, 808, 809, 810, 816 capillary action, 770 change of state, 804—811 ferrofluids, 855 heating curve, 808 ionic liquids, 837 phase diagrams, 812—813, 814—817 properties of, 764—765, 768 supercooled, 811 supercritical fluid, 832—833 surface tension, 770 symbol for, 65 vapor pressure, 152, 804—808 viscosity, 770—771 volatility of, 805 Litharge, 884 Lithium chemical properties of, 569, 871—873 electron configuration of, 570 ionization energy for, 562 orbital diagram for, 550—551 periodic table, 33 physical properties of, 570, 872 preparation of, 871 sublimation of, 598—599 Lithium carbonate, 572, 873 Lithium fluoride dipole moment of, $91 formation of, 598 molecular structure of, 599, 600 Lithium halide, 802 Lithium hydride, 874 Lithium hydroxide, 241 Lithium ion, 35 hydration energy of, 571 role in human brain, 873 Lithium molecule, 668, 782 Lithium nitride, 872 Livesag, Richard, 40 Lobes, 542 Localized electron (LE) model, 610—611 combining with molecular orbital models, 675—676 in complex ions, 954 hybridization and, 650—663 shortcomings of, 676 summary of, 660—661 Logarithms, A3—A4 London dispersion forces, 767—768 Lone pair electrons, 610, 612 Longbottom, Chris, 463 Low-density polyethylene (LDPE), 1038 Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR), 983 Lowry, Thomas M., 227 Low-spin case, 959 Lubricating oil, 379 Luggage screening, 117 Luminous intensity, unit of measurement, A16 Lysine, 1045 Lysis, 850 Magic numbers, 981 Magnesite, 876 Magnesium cathodic protection, 490 in human body, 869 ionization energy for, 563 metal crystal, 782, 784 in nature, 869 orbital diagram for, 552 periodic table, 33 physical properties of, 876 preparation of, 876 source of, 876 thermodynamic data for, A22 Magnesium compounds, 877, A23 Magnesium fluoride, solubility product, 320 Magnesium hydroxide, 242, 324 Magnesium ions, 35, 877—878 Magnesium nitride, 891 Magnesium oxide, formation of, 600, 601 Magnetic field diamagnetism, 670 paramagnetism, 670—674 Magnetic fluids, 855 Magnetic quantum number, 537, 541 Magnetite, A22 Maillard, Louis-Camille, 1051 Maillard reaction, 1051 Main-group elements, 554 Major species, 234 Malleability, 32 Manganese biological function of, 967 chemical properties of, 934, 940—941 electron configuration for, 553, 934 in nature, 869 physical properties of, 934 thermodynamic data for, A23 uses of, 930, 931, 940 Manganese compounds, 941, A23 Manganese nodules, 940 Manhattan Project, 998 Manic-depressive illness, lithium and, 873 Mannose, 1052 Manometer, 140, 141 Mao, H. K., 571 Marble, acid rain and, 176—177 Mars Climate Orbiter, 8 Mass definition of, 18 Einstein’s equation, 515—516 law of conservation of mass, 16 unit of measurement, A16 Mass action, law of, 194, 196, 200 Mass defect, 994 Mass number, 28 Mass percent, 58, 827 Mass spectrometer, 51, 52, 57 Material balance equation, 262, 288 Mathematics exponential notation, A1—A5 logarithms, A3—A4 quadratic equations, A5—A8 rounding of numbers, 64, A15 significant digits, 56, 57, 64, A9, A13—A15 successive approximations, 263, A6, A7 Matter big bang theory, 985 condensed states of, 765 nature of, 513-518 origin of, 985 particulate and wave properties of, 518 states of, 139 Matter-antimatter collision, 982 Maxwell, James C., 161 Maxwell—Boltzmann distribution law, 161 Mean free path, 161, 169—170 Measurement components of, A15 confidence limits, A13 conversion factors, 8 scientific method, 7 significant digits, 56, 57, 64, A9, A13-A15 uncertainties in, A8—A13 units of, 7, A15—A18 Measuring piper, 97 Medium steel, 785 MEK. See Methyl ethyl ketone Melting point, 417, 808, 809, 810 Membrane separator, 896 Mendeleev, Dmitri, 26, 34, 548, 549, 552 Meniscus, A8 Mercuric bromide, 320 Mercuric chloride, 320 Mercuric fluoride, 320 Mercuric iodide, 320 Mercuric ion, 37 Mercurous ion, 37 Mercury liquid state of, 564 melting point of, 570 physical properties of, 564, 570 superconductivity of, 788 thermodynamic data for, A23 Mercury cell, 484, 499 Mercury ions, 37 Mescaline, 245 Messenger RNA (mRNA), 1057, 1059 meta— (prefix), 1025 Metal hydrides, 389 Metal ions, 36 coordination numbers for, 944 ligands, 330—334 Metallic glass, 792 Metallic hydrides, 875 Metal—ligand bond, 944 Metalloids, 569, 866 Metallurgy, 122, 129, 870 Metal plating, 488—489, 492, 497 Metals, 776—785 alloys (see Alloys) binary ionic compound, 594 bonding in, 782, 784 chemical properties of, 568 corrosion, 486—490 covalent bond, 594 crystalline arrangement, 776—782 electron sea model, 782 electrorefining of, 496—497 metallurgy (see Metallurgy) molecular orbital model, 664—667, 782 most reactive, 568 periodic table, 32, 568 properties of, 32, 776 Meter (unit), A16 Methanal, 1030 Methane, 379, 1013, 1014 bond angles, 631 bonding in, 651 bond polarity in, 593 combustion of, 64—65, 119. 121, 349, 350, 368 decomposition of, 374, 607 in earth’s atmosphere, 173 formation of, 374, 605 Henry’s law constant, 836 Lewis structure for, 615, 628—629 molar mass of, 56 molecular structure of, 29, 30, 629 redox reaction with oxygen, 484 relative molecular mass of, 22 Methanol, 1027, 1028 combustion of, 377—378, 432 as engine fuel, 122, 378 enthalpy of formation for, 373 as fuel, 122, 385, 390 industrial preparation of, 1028 molecular structure of, 640 synthesis of, 435 Methionine, 1045 Method of initial rates, 712—715, 725 Method of successive approximations, 263, A6, A7 Methyl- (prefix), 1016 Methyl alcohol, 1027 Methylamine, 1032 dissociation of, 246 molecular structure of, 244 as weak base, 244, 246, A25 Methyl chloride, 604 4-Methyl-cyclopentene, 1023 Methylcyclopropane, 1020 Methylene group, 1014 Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), 1030 Methyl group, 1016 3-Methylhexane, 1017 Methyl orange, 313 Methyl phenyl ketone, 1030 Methyl red, 313 Metric system, 8, A15 Meyer, julius Lothar, 549 Micro- (prefix), A16 Microchip laboratories, 98 Microelectronics semiconductors, 791—794 transistors, 794—795 Microtaggants, 40—41 Microwave oven, 513 Mild steel, 785 Milk of magnesia, 71 Milli- (prefix), A16 Millikan, Robert, 24 Millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), 140 Millimole (mmol), 294 Mineral acids, 91 Miniaturization, 98 mm Hg, 140 mmol (millimole), 294 Models, 8, 154, 155, 604—606 Moderator, nuclear reactor, 1000 Molal boiling—point elevation constant, 845 Molal freezing—point depression constant, 847 Molality, 827 Molar concentration, of gas, 197 Molar heat capacity, 355, 363 Molarity, 93—94, 827 Molar mass, 56—58, 149—150 Molar volume, of ideal gas, 148, 149 Mole, 54—56, 96, A16 Molecular equations, 104, 105 “Molecular filter”, 155 Molecular forces intermolecular, 765—768 intramolecular, 765 Molecular formula, 62, 63, 64 Molecularity, 726—727 Molecular orbital model, 664—667, 782 bond order, 666—667 combining with localized electron model, 675—676 coordination compounds, 964—966 metals, 782 paramagnetism, 670—674 Molecular orbitals (M05), 664 antibonding MO, 665 bonding M05, 665 empty M05, 784 sigma M05, 665 Molecular orientation, during collisions, 737 Molecular sieve, 117, 155, 896 Molecular solids, 776, 777, 796—798 Molecular spectroscopy, 680—681 Molecular structure ball-and-stick model, 29—30 octahedral arrangement, 632, 661 semiochemical, 636—637 solubility, effect of on, 834 space-filling model, 29, 67 spectroscopy, 680-695 square planar arrangement, 634 structural formula, 29 tetrahedral arrangement, 629, 632, 661 trigonal bipyramid arrangement, 632, 661 trigonal planar arrangement, 528, 632, 661 VSEPR model, 627, 628-641, 679 Molecular weight, 58. See also Molar mass “Molecule breeding”, 747 Molecules, 29, 765—768. See also Molecular forces; Molecular structure Mole fraction, 151—152, 827 Mole ratio, 70 Molybdenum, 930, 993 Molybdenum—99, 986, 993 Moment of inertia, 688 Monatomic ion, oxidation state of, 1 18 Mono— (prefix), 38 Monochloroacetic acid, 230, A24 Monoclinic sulfur, 911, A23 Monodentate ligand, 944, 945 Monomethylhydrazine, 898 Monoprotic acids, 230, 305—306 Monosaccharides, 1050—1053 Montreal Protocol, 749 Mood, lithium carbonate and, 572 Moore, jeffrey, 1042 Morse potential, 685, 686 MOs. See Molecular orbitals mRNA. See MeSSenger RNA Multiple proportions, law of, 17 Multiplication exponential notation, A2 significant figures, A14 Myoglobin, 968, 969, 1048 Mystics, firewalking by, 371 Nagyagite, 908 Naming compounds, 34~44 acids, 44 alkanes, 1016—1019 alkenes, 1021 benzene derivatives, 1025 binary covalent compounds, 38—39 binary ionic compounds, 35—36 common names, 34 coordination compounds, 946 cyclic alkanes, 1020 with polyatomic ions, 37—38 strategy for, 39 Type I binary ionic compounds, 35 Type II binary ionic compounds, 35—36 Nano- (prefix), A16 “Nanocrystalline” materials, 783 Nanophase Technologies Corp., 783 Nanoscale devices, 778 Naphthalene, 1026 Natta, Giulio, 1038 Natural gas, 379 Natural law, vs. theory, 9 Natural logarithm, A4 Natural polymers, 1043—1049 carbohydrates, 1050, 1052, 1055 DNA and RNA, 1055—1059 nucleic acids, 1055—1059 proteins, 1043—1050 Natural rubber, 1034 ml orbitals, 554, 559 Negative (photography), 917 Neon atmospheric abundance of, 921 boiling point of, 921 in earth’s atmosphere, 173 freezing point of, 767 Lewis structure for, 612 mass spectrometer, 53 melting point of, 921 molar heat capacity of, 357 orbital diagram for, 551 periodic table, 33 uses of, 922 Neopentane, 1016 Neoprene, 1039 Neptunium, 989 Neptunium-239, 989, 1001 Nernst, Hermann, 474, 475 Nernst equation, 475~477 Net ionic equation, 104, 105 Network atomic solids, 785—796 Neutralization reaction, 112, 113, 363 Neutral solutions, from salts, 254 Neutron, 27, 979, 1003 Neutron bombardment, for nuclear transformation, 989 Newlands, john, 548 A New System of Chemical Philosophy (Dalton), 18 Newton (unit), 140 nf orbitals, 554, 559 Nickel biological function of, 967 chemical properties of, 934, 942 electron configuration for, 553 physical properties of, 934, 941 thermodynamic data for, A23 uses of, 941 Nickel—cadmium battery, 484 Nickel compounds, 941, A23 Niobium, 937 Niobium alloys, 788 NIST F-l atomic clock, 523 Nitrate ion, 38 bond angles, 638 electronic structure of, 637 Lewis structure for, 616 molecular structure of, 678 Nitric acid, 44, 91, 92, 229, 899 aqua regia, 335 concentrated, 903 dissociation of, 266-267 formation of, 350 Lewis structure for, 899 molecular structure of, 903 from nitrogen dioxide, 176 Ostwald process, 903 physical properties of, 903 A85 A86 Index Nitric acid (continued) titration of with sodium hydroxide, 294-297 uses of, 902 Nitric oxide, 38, 621, 899, 900 action of in atmosphere, 746 in biological systems, 676 as catalyst, 746, 748 decomposition of, 902 formation of, 351 Lewis structure for, 899 magnetism of, 674 molecular orbital energy-level diagram, 900 reaction with ammonia, 903 reaction with hydrogen, 732—735 Nitride ion, 35 Nitride salt, 872 Nitrite anion, 617 Nitrite ion, 38 Nitrobenzene, 1024 Nitrogen in biological systems, 895 chemical properties of, 892 chemistry of, 893—904 diatomic molecule, 671 in earth’s atmosphere, 173 in human body, 869 ionization energy for, 562 molar heat capacity of, 357 molar volume for, 149 in nature, 869 _ orbital diagram for, 551 oxidation of, 369 oxyacids of, 902—903 partial pressure of in air, 153 physical properties of, 891 preparation of, 891 production of, 870 source of, 891 thermodynamic data for, A23 triple bond in, 893 under pressure, 892 valence electron configuration for, 891 velocity distribution of, 162 Nitrogen-based explosives, 893~894 Nitrogen compounds, 899, AZ3 Nitrogen cycle, 897 Nitrogen dioxide, 38, 621, 899, 902, 909 decomposition of, 704-706, 708 dimerization of, 190, 191, 902 enthalpy of formation for, 373 formation of, 369, 373 Lewis structure for, 899 reaction with carbon monoxide, 726—728 reaction with fluorine, 728—729 reaction with water, 176 standard enthalpy of formation for, 373 Nitrogen fixation, 895—897 Nitrogen-fixing bacteria, 897 Nitrogen gas bonding in, 657 ' Lewis structure for, 615, 657, 868 production of, 74—75 thermodynamic data for, A23 use in fruit storage, 896 Nitrogen hydrides, 897 Nitrogen ions, 895 Nitrogen molecule bond energy, 672 Henry’s law constant, 836 Nitrogen monoxide, 38, 899, 900 in biological systems, 676 Lewis structure for, 899 Nitrogen—nitrogen triple bond, 893 Nitrogen oxides, 173, 174, 899—900, 902 Nitrogen oxyacids, 902-903 Nitrogen tetroxide, 213, 215 Nitroglycerine, 893-894 Nitro groups, 894 m-Nitrophenol, 313 Nitrophorin, 901 Nitrosyl ion, 900 Nitrous acid, 44, 229 acid dissociation constant for, 230, A24 molecular structure of, 231 from nitrogen dioxide, 176 Nitrous oxide, 38, 899—900, 902 NMR. See Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy Noble gases, 634, 890, 921—924 atmospheric abundance, 921 boiling point of, 921 electron configuration of, 921 first ionization energy for, 562 melting point of, 921 periodic table, 33, 569 Noble metals, 486 Nodal surfaces, 542 Nodes, 542 Nomenclature. See Naming compounds Nonane, 1014, 1018 Nonelectrolytes, 90, 93 Nonideal solution, 842—844 Nonmetals chemical properties of, 32—33 compounds with halogens, 919. 920 formation of covalent bond, 594 periodic table, 32, 32—33, 568—569 preparation of, 870 Nonose, 1050 Nonstoichiometric compositions, 875 Nonstoichiometric compounds, 804 Nonvolatile solute, 840, 841 Nonzero integers, A14 Norepinephrine, 245 Normal alkanes, 1014 Normal boiling point, 810 Normal hydrocarbons, 1014 Normal melting point, 810 Notation, atomic number and mass number, 28 Novocaine, 245 ns orbitals, 559 n—type semiconductor, 792—794 Nuclear accidents, 1000 Nuclear atom, 25, 27 Nuclear fission, 997—1002 Nuclear fusion, 997, 1002 Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, 691—695 Nuclear physics, 1003. See also Nuclear transformation; Radioactive decay; Radioactivity Nuclear power, 999-1001 Nuclear power plant, 999 Nuclear spin, 691 Nuclear transformations, 988—989 Nuclear waste disposal, 1004—1005 Nuclear Waste Policy Act, 1004 Nucleic acids, 1055—1059 Nucleotides, 1056 Nucleus, 25, 27, 978 fission, 997-1002 nuclear transformations, 988—989 radioactive decay, 979—987 size of, 978 stability of, 979 thermodynamic stability of, 993—996 See also Nuclear transfer; Radioactivity Nuclides, 979—981, 984, 987, 1006 Numbers rounding, 64, A15 significant digits, 56, 57, 64, A9, A13—A15 Nylon, 1034, 1037 -oate (suffix), 1032 Observation, scientific method, 7, 8 Octa- (prefix), 38 Octahedral complexes, 957—960, 961 Octahedral holes, 798—799 Octahedral molecular structure, 632, 661 Octane, 367, 378, 379, 1014 Octaves, 548 Octet rule, 612, 617—619, 624 exceptions to, 617—627 hyperconjugation, 621, 623 odd-electron molecules, 621 Octose, 1050 n-Octyl acetate, 1031 Odd-electron molecules, octet rule, 621 Odors, Cyranose sensor, 638 -oic (suffix), 1031 _ Oil drop experiment, 24 OIL RIG (mnemonic), 121 Oil shale, 390 -ol (suffix), 1026 Old tires, as fuel, 387 -one (suffix), 1030 One-step compression, 411, 412 One-step expansion, 407, 412 Opel Zafira, fuel cells, 485 Operator, 527 Optical isomerism, 949 Orbital diagrams, 550~551 Orbitals 15 orbital, 527, 539 4d orbital, 545 4f orbital, 545 aufbau principle, 550-557 complex orbitals, 538 degenerate, 543—544 d orbital, 541—544 forbital, 541—544 in helium, 546—547 Hund’s rule, 551 hybridization and, 650-663 in hydrogen, 540—545 localized electron model, 610—611,650—663, 675—676 as mathematical functions, 679 molecular orbital model, 664—667 nd orbitals, 554, 559 nf orbitals, 559 np orbitals, 559 ns orbitals, 559 pi MOs, 670 p orbital, 541—544 quantum numbers, 540—542 shapes and energies, 542—543 size of, 545 s orbital, 541—544 subshells, 541 tetrahedral atomic orbitals, 652 Order of reactant, 708 Ores, metallurgy, 122, 129, 870 Organic acids, 230 Organic chemistry, 1012—1059 alcohols, 1026—1029 aldehydes and ketones, 1030—1031 alkanes, 1013—1021 alkenes and alkynes, 1021—1024 amines, 1032 aromatic hydrocarbons, 1024—1026 carbohydrates, 1050, 1052, 1055 carboxylic acids and esters, 1031—1032 definition of, 1012 functional groups, 1027 hydrocarbon derivatives, 1026—1033 natural polymers, 1043—1059 nucleic acids, 1055-1059 polymers, 415, 1033—1043 proteins, 1043—1050 ortbo- (prefix), 1025 Orthophosphoric acid, 906 Osmosis, 848—852 Osmotic pressure, 848—852 Ostwald process, 903 -ous (suffix), 44 Overall reaction order, 795 Overvoltage, 493 Oxalate, 944, 945 Oxalic acid, 249, A25 Oxidation of alcohols, 1031 corrosion, 486—490 definition of, 121 galvanic cells, 462—465 Oxidation half-reaction, 125 Oxidation numbers, 116, 118-119 Oxidation—reduction reactions, 98, 115—130 balancing equations, 121—129 characteristics, 119, 121 equilibrium constants for, 478—479 galvanic cells, 462—465, 467, 469, 471 titrations, 128, 129—130 Oxidation state, 116, 113—119, 943 Oxidation states method, 122—123 Oxide ion, 35 Oxidizing agent, definition of, 121 Oxyacids, 229—230 with halogens, 918 of nitrogen, 902—903 of phosphorus, 905—906 of sulfur, 912—913 Oxyanions, 37 Oxychloro anions, 919 Oxygen chemistry of, 909—910 collision frequency for, 169 in earth’s atmosphere, 173 electron configuration of, 594 in human body, 869 ionization energy for, 562 Lavoisier on, 16 liquid oxygen, 673 mean free path in, 170 molar volume for, 149 in nature, 869 orbital diagram for, 551 oxidation state of, 118, 119, 121 paramagnetism of, 673 physical properties of, 908, 909 preparation of, 908 production of, 870 reaction with ethanol, 66—67 reaction with propane, 68, 70 sources of, 908 standard state for, 373 thermodynamic data for, A23 Oxygen difluoride, 919 Oxygen—hydrogen bond, 688 Oxygen molecule enthalpy of fusion of, 809 Henry’s law constant, 836 melting point of, 809 paramagnetism of, 672, 909 Oxytocin, 1046 Ozone, 909 in atmosphere, 909 decomposition of, 729—731, 746, 909 formation of, 746 as oxidizing agent, 746 resonance structure for, 909 Ozone depletion, 683, 748, 749 Ozone layer, 909 Ozonolysis, 909 Pain, for corrosion prevention, 490 Palladium catalytic converter, 743 nanophase, 783 uses of, 931 PAN. See Polyacrylonitrile Paper chemistry, 3-7 para- (prefix), 1025 Paracclsus, 15 Paramagnetic complex, 958 Paramagnetism, 670-674 Partial pressure, 442 Dalton’s law of, 150—154 definition of, 150 equilibrium expressions involving pressure, 197 Particle accelerators, 988 “Particle in a box”, 536 Particle physics, 1003 Pascal (unit), 141 Pasteur, Louis, 949 Pathway, 349 Patina, 486, 489, 942 Pauli exclusion principle, 545 Pauling, Linus, 587, 589, 604 Peker, Atakan, 792 Pencils, 586 Penetration effect, 559 Penicillins, 59 Pent- (prefix), 1016 Penta- (prefix), 38 Pentane, 379, 1014, 1015—1016, 1018 Pentosc, 1050, 1052 Peptide linkage, 1044 Per— (prefix), 38 Percent composition, 58—60 Percent dissociation, 239—241 Percent ionic character, 602 Percent yield, 75 Perchlorate ion, 38 Perchlorates, 44, 524, 525 Perchloric acid, 44, 92, 229, 231, 918 Perfluoroethylene, 919—920, 1035 Perhalates, 918 Perhalic acid, 918 Period, periodic table, 34 Periodic table, 32—34 actinides, 33, 554, 555, 569, 866 alkali metals, 33, 562, 568—572, 871—876 alkaline earth metals, 33, 241—242, 569, 876-878 atomic radius and, 556- 568 atomic size, 866—868 aufbau principle, 550—557 chemical properties and, 33—34 electron affinity, 5 64—566 electron configurations, 553—554 electronegativity and, 588 extension by nuclear transformation, 989 Group 1A elements, 33, 36, 241, 562, 569, 866, 871—876 Group 2A elements, 33, 36, 241, 569, 866, 876—878 Group 3A elements, 33, 569, 866, 878—880 Group 4A elements, 33, 569, 866, 880—884, 1012 Group 5A elements, 33, 569, 866, 890, 891—893 Group 6A elements, 33, 569, 866, 890, 908, 914 Group 7A elements, 33, 569, 866, 890, 914—921 Group 8A elements, 33, 562, 569, 866, 890, 921—924 group anomalies, 866—868 groups, significance of, 554 halogens, 33, 569, 871, 914-921 history of, 548—550 illustrated, 33, 555, 556 information contained in, 568—569 ionization energy, 560—563 lanthanides, 33, 554, 555, 569, 866, 936 main-group elements, 554 metalloids, 569 metals, 32, 568 noble gases, 33, 33—34, 370, 569, 890, 921—924 nonmetals, 32—33, 568—569 orbitals and electron configuration, 550—557 representative elements, 554 transition elements, 569 transition metals, 32, 33, 36, 569, 930—943, 932 transuranium elements, 989 See also Chemical elements Permanent waving of hair, 1049 Permanganate ion, 38, 129, 940—941 Perovskites, superconductivity of, 788 Peroxide ion, 38 PET. See Positron emission tomography Peta- (prefix), A16 Petroleum, 379 Petroleum desulfurization, 746 Petroleum fractions, 379 Pewter, 784, 882 pH acid—base titrations, 293—309 of buffered solutions, 283, 290 calculation of, 234—239 of common substances, 233 definition of, 232 indicators, 313 mixture of weak acids, 237—239 of polyprotic acids, 249 solubility and, 324—325 of strong acid solutions, 234 of strong base solution, 243 of weak acid, 234—237, 266 of weak bases, 244, 246 Pharmaceuticals, chiral molecules, 954, 955 Phase diagrams, 812—813, 814—817 pH curve indicators, 314 A87 A88 Index pH curve (continued) strong acid—strong base titrations, 297 weak acid—strong base titrations, 297—306 weak base—strong acid titrations, 306—309 Phenanthrene, 1026 Phenol, 230, 1028, A24 Phenolphthalein, 112, 309, 313 Phenol red, 313 Phenylalanine, 1045 Phenyl group, 1025 Pheromones, 637 Phlogiston, 15 pHinmen256,257,280,28L 309,477 Phosphate ion, 38 Phosphate rock, 109, 891, 906 Phosphates, solubility products, 320, A26 Phosphide ion, 35 Phosphide salts, 905 Phosphine, 640, 905 Phosphoric acid, 44, 229, 906 dissociation constants for, 249, A25 dissociation of, 248, 249—251 Lewis structure for, 907 molecular structure of, 231, 907 production of, 906 titration of with sodium hydroxide, 314—318 Phosphorite, 109 Phosphorous acid, 907 Phosphorus black phosphorus, 904 brown phosphorus, 674 chemistry of, 904—907 in fertilizers, 907 in human body, 869 ionization energy for, 563 in nature, 869 oxyacids of, 905—906 physical properties of, 891 preparation of, 891 red phosphorus, 904 sources of, 891, 993 thermodynamic data for, A23 valence electron configuration for, 891 white phosphorus, 797, 904 Phosphorus»32, 993 Phosphorus halides, 907 Phosphorus oxides, 905 Phosphorus oxyacids, 905—906 Phosphorus pentachloride bonding in, 623 formation of, 633 Lewis structure for, 619—620, 658—659 molecular structure of, 633 Phosphorus pentoxide, 905 Photochemical smog, 174-175 Photochemistry, 683 Photochromic glass, 922 Photoelectric effect, 514 Photography, 914, 917, 921 Photon, 514—515, 1003 Photosynthesis, 387 pH scale, 232—239 Pi bond, 655, 677, 868 Pico- (prefix), A16 Piezoelectric substance, 1040 Pilot plant test, 10 Pi molecular orbitals, 670 Pipet, 97 Piston, 352 Pitchblende, 26, 27, 876 Planck, Max, 513 Planck‘s constant, 513, 528 Plane»polarized light, 949 Plants. See Biological systems Plastic chips, 98 Plasticizers, 13 Plastics, 898, 1033. See also Polymers Plastic sulfur, 911, 912 Plating, of metals, 488—489, 492, 497 Platinum, uses of, 931 Pleated sheet, 1046, 1047 Plumber’s solder, 784 Plumbic ion, 37 Plumbous ion, 37 Plum pudding model, atomic structure, 24, 25 Plunkett, Roy, 1035 Plutonium, synthesis of, 989 Plutonium—239, 989 p-n junction, 795, 796 Point defects, 803 Polar bonds, 592 Polar covalent bonds, 587, 602 Polar fish, 856 Polarized light, 949 Polar liquids, capillary action, 770 Polar molecule, 88 Pollucite, 871 Pollutants, iron bed for remediation, 120 Polonium, 908, 914 crystalline structure of, 773 half-lives of nuclides, 987 history of, 908 physical properties of, 908 source of, 908 Polonium~210, 987 Polonium'214, 987 Polonium-218, 987 Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), 1036 Polyatomic gas, heating of, 356—357 Polyatomic ions, 32 Lewis structures for, 621—622 naming compounds with, 37—38 Polyatomic molecules dipolar behavior in, 591 rotational spectra of, 690 vibrational spectroscopy, 686 Polybutadiene, 1036 Polycrystalline materials, 783 Polydentate ligand, 944, 945 Polyelectronic atoms, quantum mechanics, 545—548, 557—560 Polyester, 1038 Polyethylene, 1035, 1036, 1038, 1039 Polyethylene polymers, 1035, 1038 Polyhydroxyl alcohols, 1028 Polymerization, 1024, 1035, 1037 Polymers, 1033—1043 crosslinking, 1034 entropic ordering in, 415 ethylene-based, 1038—1043 history of, 1033 properties of, 1039 self-healing, 1042 strength of, 1040, 1041 types of, 1035—1038 viscosity of, 1039—1040 Polypeptides, 1044 Polypropylene, 1036, 1041 Polyprotic acids, 246—254, 314—318 Polysaccharides, 1053 Polystyrene, 1036, 1041 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 10—13, 921,1036,1043 Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF), 1040 Popper, Karl, 8 p orbital, in hydrogen atom, 541-544 Poreda, Robert J., 43 Porous disk, 463 Porphyrin, 967 Positional probability, 405, 425 Positive ion, 30 Positive-ion bombardment, 989 Positron, 982 Positron emission tomography (PET), 993 Positron production, from nuclides, 982 Potassium abundance in human body, 869 abundance in nature, 869 boiling point of, 570 chemical properties of, 569 electron configuration of, 570 melting point of, 570 orbital diagram for, 552 periodic table, 33 physical properties of, 570, 872 preparation of, 871 reaction with oxygen, 872 thermodynamic data for, A23 Potassium bromide, 591, 611—612 Potassium chlorate, 919 in fireworks, 524, 525 thermal decomposition of, 153 Potassium chromate, 76—77, 99—101,104 Potassium dichromate, 95, 129 Potassium ferric-yanide, 947 Potassium fluoride, dipole moment of, 591 Potassium halide, structure of, 802 Potassium hydroxide, 92, 111 Potassium ion, 35, 571 Potassium nitrate, in fireworks, 525 Potassium perchlorate, in fireworks, 524—525 Potassium permanganate, 129 Potential energy, 348, 399 Potentiometer, 465 Power plant, nuclear, 999 Power production fuel cells for, 485 as source of air pollution, 175, 176-178 POWers, exponential notation, A2 Power transmission, superconductivity and, 789 Precipitate, definition of, 99 Precipitation reactions, 98, 99—104, 106—110, 325—330 definition of, 99 selective precipitation, 106—107, 327—328, 329—330, 336 stoichiometry of, 107—109 Precision, A9 Pre«exponential factor, 738 Prefixes in chemical names, 38 in SI system, A16 Pressure Boyle’s law, 141—143, 144, 147 critical pressure, 813 Dalton’s law of partial pressures, 150—154 definition of, 140 equilibrium expressions involving, 197—199 free energy, dependence of on pressure, 433—437 heating an ideal gas at constant pressure, 355—356 Le Chatelier’s principle, 212—214 solubility, effect of on, 835—836. units of, 140—141 van der Waals equation, - 171—172 Pressure-swing adsorption process, 896 Priestley, Joseph, 15, 902 Priestley Medal, 15 Primary alcohol, 1026, 1029, 1031 Primary amine, 1032 Primary structure, proteins, 1044 Principal quantum number, 537, 541 Probability, 402, 405 Probability distribution, 539 “Pro”-bonding, 665 Products chemical equation, 65 stoichiometric calculations, 68, 70—71, 75—76 Proline, 1045 Propane, 68, 70, 379, 1013, 1014 Propanol, 1027 Propanone, 1030 Propellants, 748 Propene, 1021 n-Propyl alcohol, 1027 Propyl group, 1016 Protactinium-234, 987 Proteins a-amino acids in, 1043-1046 denaturation of, 1049—1050 enzymes, 740, 744, 747, 1055 molecular structure of, 744 primary structure, 1044 secondary structure, 1046-1048 synthesis of, 1057 tertiary structure, 1048—1049 Protein-substrate interaction, 744, 745 Proton, 25, 27, 1003 chemical properties and, 28 quark, 979 Proust, Joseph, 16 Proust’s law, 16 Pseudo-first-order rate law, 724 P-T boundary, 43 p-type semiconductor, 793, 794 Putrescine, 1033 PVC. See Polyvinyl chloride PVDF. See Polyvinylidene difluoride PV diagram, 359 PV work, 353, 354, 365, 443 Pyrex, 790 Pyridine, 244, A25 Pyrite, 910 Pyroaurite, 490 Pyroelectric substance, 1040 Pyrolytic cracking, 380 Pyrophosphoric acid, 906 Quadratic equations, A5—A8 Quadratic formula, A6 Qualitative analysis, 107, 329—330 Quantitative kinetic molecular model of gases, 156—162 Quantitative observation, 7 Quantization, 531, 532 Quantized energy levels, 534 Quantum (quanta), 514—516 “Quantum corral”, 529 Quantum mechanics, 510—572 electron spin, 545 Heisenberg uncertainty principle, 528—530, 545 history of, 526 indeterminacy principle, 528 orbitals, 527, 539, 540—545 particle in a box, 536 Pauli exclusion principle, 545 periodic table and, 548—550 Planck’s constant, 513, 528 polyelectronic atoms, 545—548, 557—560 Quantum model, 519 Quantum numbers, 540—542 Quantum physics electromagnetic radiation, 511-513 matter, nature of, 513—518 Quarks, 979, 1003 Quartz, 790, 791, 932 molecular structure of, 868 thermodynamic data for, A23 Quartz glass, 791 Quicklime, 149 Quinine, 245 Racemic mixture, 951 Rad(unnt 1006 Radial probability distribution, 540, 560 Radiation, effects of, 1002, 1004-1007 Radiation damage, 1005 Radiation therapy, 993 Radioactive decay, 979—987 definition of, 979 half-life, 986-987 kinetics of, 984-987 types of, 981 Radioactive waste disposal, 1004—1005 Radioactivity, 24, 26—27 chain reaction, 998 dating by, 990—992 detection of, 990 medical applications of, 992—993 nuclear fission, 997-1002 nuclear fusion, 997, 1002 uses of, 990—993 Radiocarbon dating, 990—991 Radiotracers, 992—993 Radium electron configuration for, 557 half—lives of nuclides, 987 periodic table, 33 physical properties of, 876 preparation of, 876 source of, 876 Radium-226, 987 Radon effect on body, 1007 half-lives of nuclides, 987 periodic table, 33, 34 Radon-222, 987 Radon compounds, 923 Rainwater, acid rain, 175, 176, 226, 742 Random-coil arrangement, 1048 Random error, A9 Raoult, Francois M., 840 Raoult’s law, 840—841, 842, 843 Rate constant, 708, 737—739 Rate-determining step, 727 Rate laws, 708—726 definition of, 708 differential rate law, 709, 710, 724 fast forward and reverse first steps, 729-732 first-order rate law, 711, 715—719,725 integrated rate law, 710, 715—724 method of initial rates, 712-715, 725 pseudo—first-order rate law, 724 rate constant, 708 second-order rate law, 720—722, 725 steady-state approximation, 732—735 summary of, 724-726 zero-order rate law, 722—723,725 Rate of decay, 984 Reactants chemical equation, 65 stoichiometric calculations, 68, 70—71, 75—76 Reaction mechanisms, 704, 726—735 collision model for chemical kinetics, 735—739 fast forward and reverse first steps, 729-732 rate-determining step, 727 steady-state approximation, 732—735 techniques for viewing, 730 Reaction quotient, 202, 475 Reaction rates, 704—726 catalysis, 739—749 fast forward and reverse first steps, 729—732 femtochemistry, 707 instantaneous rate, 706 rate-determining step, 727 steady-state approximation, 732—735 Reactor core, 999—1000, 1002 Reactors breeder reactors, 1001—1002 nuclear fission, 998—1000 nuclear waste disposal, 1004—1005 Real gases, chemical equilibrium, 216—217 Rectifiers, 796 Redox reactions. See Oxidation—reduction reactions Red phosphorus, 904 Reducing agent, definition of, 121 Reduction, galvanic cells, 462—465 Reduction half-reaction, 125 Reduction potential, 465—471, 934, 935, A27 Reference State, 200 Refrigerators, Freon, 609—610, 748, 749, 909, 921, 1020 Relative atomic mass, 22 Relative molecular mass, 20, 21 Relative solubilities, 321—322 Relativity, 5 64—5 65 , 994 Releaser pheromones, 637 Rem (unit), 1006 Representative elements, 554, 866 Reproducibility, A9 Residual oil, 384 Resonance, 616—617 Resonance structures, 616 Respiratory chain, 967 Respiratory inhibitor, 971 Reverse bias, 793 Reverse osmosis, 850—852 Reversible process, 409, 417, 445-446 Reversible reactions, 708 Rhodium, catalytic converter, 743 Rhodochrosite, 932 Rhombic sulfur, 910—911, A23 Ribonucleic acids (RNA), 1055—1059 Ribose, 1052, 1053, 1056 Ribulose, 1052 -ric (suffix), 44 RNA. See Ribonucleic acids [\89 A90 Index Roasting, 212 Rocket propellant, 898 Rock salt, 915 Rohrer, Heinrich, 21 Roman baths, lead use in, 882 Roman numeral, in naming of ionic compounds, 36—37 Root mean square velocity, 160 Roots, exponential notation, A2—A3 Rotational energy levels, 689 Rotational fine structure, 682 Rotational quantum number, 688 Rotational spectroscopy, 688-690 Rotational spectrum, 688 Rotational transition energy, 689 Rubber, 1034, 1039 Rubidium boiling point of, 570 chemical properties of, 569 electron configuration of, 570 melting point of, 570 periodic table, 33 physical properties ‘ of, 570, 872 preparation of, 871 reaction with oxygen, 872 Rubidium halide, 802 Rubidium hydroxide, 241 Rubidium peroxide, 42 Ruby, color of, 963 Rusting, of iron, 389, 440 Rustmaster paint, 490 Rutherford, Ernest, 24, 25, 979, 988 Rutherfordium, 989 Rutile, 937 Salt (sodium chloride), 30, 775 Salt bridge, 463, 487 Salts (compound), 32 acid—base properties of, 254—261 acidic solutions from, 256—261 basic solutions from, 254—256 common ion effect, 277 neutral solutions from, 254 solubility, 318-325 solubility of in water, 102—103 of strong acid and strong base, 254-256 Sapa, 882 Sapphire, color of, 963 Saturated hydrocarbons, 1013—1021 SAW device. See Surface acoustic wave Scandium biological function of, 967 chemical properties of, 934, 937 electron configuration of, 933 orbital diagram for, 552 physical properties of, 934, 937 uses of, 937 , Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), 21, 529, 730, 778 SCF method. See Self-consistent field method Schoenbein, Christian, 1033 Schottky defects, 803 Schrodinger, Erwin, 526 Schrodinger wave equation, 527, 532 for hydrogen atom, 536—538, 557 for polyelectronic atom, 557 Scientific method, 7—9 Scintillation counter, 990 Scrubber, 176—177 Scrubbing, 176—177, 242, 911 Seaborgium, 989 Seawater, desalination of, 850—851 sec- (prefix), 1017 Second (unit), A16 Secondary alcohol, 1026, 1029 Secondary amine, 1032 Secondary structure, proteins, 1046-1048 Second ionization energy, 561 Second law of thermodynamics, 415, 418—419, 425, 446 Second-order rate laws, 720—722, 725 Second-order reactions, 720 Seddon, Kenneth R., 837 Seed oil, as fuel, 390 Selective precipitation, 106—107, 327-330, 336 Selenate ion, 42 Selenium, 908 Self~consistent field (SCF) method, 547—548, 558 Self-healing polymers, 1042 Self-tanning products, 1051 Semiconductors, 791-796 Semimetals, 866 Semiochemical, 636—637 Semipermeable membranes, 848—853 Semon, Waldo, 12 Serine, 1045 Setae, 769 Sheele, Carl, 586 Shuttle missions, fuel cells in, 484 Sickle cell anemia, 970 Side chains, 1044 Siegel, Dick, 783 Sigma, 375 Sigma bond, 655, 656, 677 Sigma molecular orbitals, 665 Significant digits, 56, 57, 64, A9, A13-A15 Silica, 582, 787—790 Silicate anions, 790 Silicates, 790 Silicon,'787, 880, 1012 chemical properties of, 867 in nature, 869, 881 physical properties of, 880 preparation of, 880 sources of, 880 thermodynamic data for, A23 Silicon chips, 794 Silicon compounds, 787—791, A23 Silicon dioxide, 868 Silicon—oxygen single bond, 881 Silicon-silicon single bond, 881 Silver as conductor, 931 density of, 780 in nature, 126 photography, 917, 921 physical properties of, 931 sterling silver, 784, 942 tarnish, 486 thermodynamic data for, A23 uses of, 930 Silver bromide, 320, 917, 921 Silver chloride photochromic glass, 922 precipitation of, 101—102 solubility of, 91, 325 solubility product for, 320 Silver chromate, 322—323 Silver iodide, 320, 321 Silver ions, 35, 106 Silver nitrate, 108, 322—323 Silver phosphate, 324—325 Silver plating, 497, 498 Silver sulfate, 320 Silver sulfide, 486, 494 Silver tarnish, 486, 494 Simple cubic unit cell, 773 Single bond, 607, 608 SI units, A16 of energy, 161, 353 of pressure, 140 Six-step expansion, of ideal gas, 408 Slaked lime, 242 Slightly soluble, 102 Slurry, 176 Smaltite, 941 “Smart” window, 482 Smell, electronic nose, 638 Smog, 174 Soda ash, 242 Soda-lime glass, 791 Sodium atomic structure of, 28 boiling point of, 570 chemical properties of, 569 electron configuration of, 563, 570 formation of sodium chloride, 30—31 in human body, 869 isotopes of, 28 melting point of, 570 in nature, 869 orbital diagram for, 552 periodic table, 33 physical properties of, 570, 872 preparation of, 871 reaction of with chlorine, 570 sources of, 993 thermodynamic data for, A23 Sodium-24, 993 Sodium acetate, 254 Sodium ammonium tartrate, 949—950 Sodium atoms, color of fireworks and, 524 Sodium azide, 151 Sodium bicarbonate, 41 Sodium chloride, 30 dipole moment of, 591 electrolysis of, 498-500 enthalpy of fusion of, 807 formation of, 115, 116 ionic bonding in, 31 melting point of, 809 molecular structure of, 776 reaction of silver nitrate with, 108 solubility of, 89, 91, 829—830 structure of, 600, 802 Sodium fluoride, 255, 600, 601, 809 Sodium halide, 802 Sodium hydrogen carbonate, 65—66 Sodium hydroxide, 241 solubility of, 92 titration of acetic acid with, 298—302 titration of hydrochloric acid with, 312 titration of hydrogen cyanide with, 303-304 titration of nitric acid with, 294—297 titration of phosphoric acid with. 314—318 titration of polyprotic acids with, 314—318 Sodium ion, 35, 571 Sodium peroxide, 872 Sodium tetraborate, 878 Sodium thiosulfate, 917 Solar heating. of car, 804 Solar pond, 828—829 Solder, 784, 882 Solids, 746, 771—804 amorphous, 771 atomic solids, 776—777 ceramics, 789, 791 change of state, 802—809 crystalline; 77] glass, 790, 791 ionic solids, 32, 775, 798—803 lattice defects, 803-804, 884 melting point of, 806, 807, 808 metallic glass, 792 molecular solids, 776, 777, 796—798 network atomic solids, 785—796 phase diagrams, 810-811, 814-817 semiconductors, 791—796 superconductors, 78 8-789 symbol for, 65 X-ray analysis of, 771-774 See also Metals Solubility, 89, 318—325 common ion effect, 322-323 of complex ions, 334-336 complications inherent in calculations, 323-324 insoluble, 102 measurement of, 91 pH and, 324—325 pressure effects, 835—836 relative solubilities, 321—322 rule of, 827—828 of salts in water, 102—103 slightly soluble, 102 solubility product, 318—321, A26 solubility product constant, 318 structure effects on, 834—835 temperature effects, 836—838 .See also Precipitation; Solutions Solubility product, 318—321, A26 Solubility product constant, 318 Solute, 90, 827, 845 Solutions, 826—856 aqueous (see Aqueous solutions) boiling-point elevation, 844, 845—846 colligative properties, 844—853 Composition of, 93—97, 827 concentrated, 827 dilution, 96—97 electrolyte solutions, 852—853 ferrofluids, 855 freezing-point depression, 846—848, 855 Henry’s law, 835—836, 839 hypertonic, 850 hypotonic, 850 ideal, 842 isotonic, 850 mass percent, 827 molality, 827 molarity, 93—94, 827 mole fraction, 151—152, 827 nonideal, 842—844 osmotic pressure, 848—852 Raoult’s law, 840—841, 842, 843 standard solution, 95, 96 stock solution, 95 suspension different from, 853 thermodynamics of formation, 827—834 types of, 826 vapor pressure of, 840—844 water as solvent, 88—90 See also Precipitation; Solubility Solvent, 90, 827 Somatic damage, from radioactivity, 1005 Soot, removal from smoke, 856 Sottos, Nancy, 1042 “Sound-fridge”, 173 sp hybridization, 656—658, 661 spzhybndfianon,653—655,661 sp3hybndfianon,651—653 654, 661 Space-filling model, 29, 67 Space science and electromagnetic radiation, 522 rocket fuel, 898 Special relativity, theory of, 564, 994 Specific heat capacity, 363 Spectral analysis, A18—A21 Spectrochemical series, 959 Spectrophotometer, A18 Spectroscopy, 583, 680 comets, 522 definition of, A18 electronic spectroscopy, 682—684 femtosecond spectroscopy, 730 molecular spectroscopy, 680-681 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, 691—695 rotational spectroscopy, 688«690 spectral analysis, AIS—A21 spectrophotometer, A18 vibrational spectroscopy, 684—6 8 8 Sphalerite, 943 Spin angular momentum, 691 Spinneret, .1034 “Spinning” nucleus, 691 Spin—spin coupling, 692-694 Spodumene, 871 Spontaneity free energy and, 422-423 second law of thermodynamics and, 425 temperature and, 419—422, 424 Spontaneous fission, 981, 982 Spontaneous reactions, 400—406,703 Spoon, silver plating of, 497, 498 Square planar arrangement, 634 Square planar complexes, 962—964 Stability constants, 331 Stahl, Georg, 15 Stainless steel, 488, 489 Stalactites and stalagmites, 276, 277, 325 Standard atmosphere, 140, 141 Standard enthalpy of formation, 372—378 Standard entropy, 427 Standard free energy, 439 Standard free energy change, 429 Standard free energy of formation, 432 Standard hydrogen electrode, 466 Standard pressure, 373 Standard reduction potential, 465—471, 934, 935 Standard solution, 95, 96 Standard state, 373, 423, 432 Standard temperature and pressure, 148 Stannic ion, 37 Stannous ion, 37 Starch, 1053, 1054 Stars, nucleosynthesis, 985 State function, 349, 430 State property, 349 States of matter, 764—765 changes of state, 417, 802—809 condensed states, 765 intermolecular forces, 765—768 phase diagrams, 810—811, 814—817 See also Gases; Liquids; Solids Statue of Liberty, 488—489, 942 Steady-state approximation, 732—735 Steam, reaction with carbon monoxide, 191—193 Steel chromium in, 938 composition of, 785 corrosion prevention for, 489, 490 production of, 870 vanadium in, 938 Stellar nucleosynthesis, 985 Stereoisomerism, 948, 949—954, 1022 Sterling silver, 784, 942 Stibnite, 421, 891 STM. See Scanning tunneling microscopy Stock solution, 95 Stoichiometric calculations acid—base reactions, 111—115 amounts of reactants and products, 68, 70—71, 75—76 buffered solutions, 279—293 chemical equilibrium, 190—217 complex ions, 332 dilution, 96—97 equilibrium pressures and concentrations, 203—205 equilibrium problems, 205—209 gases, 148 limiting reactant, 72—75 molarity, 93—94 percent yield, 75 precipitation reactions, 107—109 ‘ standard solution, 95, 96 theoretical yield, 75 See also Chemical equilibrium Stoichiometric equivalence, 112 Stoichiometric point, 112 Stoichiometric quantities, 72 Stoichiometry, 50—77 atomic mass, 18, 51—54 calculations (see Stoichiometric calculations) chemical equations, 64—68 composition of solutions, 93-94 of electrolytic process, 492 formulas, 60-64 gases, 148—150 gravimetric analysis, 109, 110 molar mass, 56—58 mole, 54—56 mole ratio, 70 percent composition, 58—60 percent yield, 75 of precipitation reactions, 107—109 qualitative analysis, 107 theoretical yield, 75 volumetric analysis, 112 Straight-chain hydrocarbons, 1014 Stregay, Heather Ryphemi, 402 Strong acids, 92, 229, 234, 266—267 strong acid-strong base titrations, 294-297, 311—312 [191 A92 Index Strong acids (continued) weak base—strong acid titrations, 306—309 Strong acid—strong base titrations, 294-297, 311—312 Strong acid-weak base titrations, 306-309 Strong bases, 92. strong acid—strong base titrations, 294-297, 311—312 weak acid—strong base titrations, 297—306 Strong base—weak acid titrations, 297—306 Strong electrolytes, 90—93, 104 Strong-field case, 958 Strontianite, 876 Strontium, 33, 876, 993, 1006 Strontium—87, 993 Strontium chromate, 320 Strontium compounds, 877 Strontium fluoride, 320 Strontium hydroxide, 241 Strontium nitrate, 525 Strontium sulfate, 320 Structural formula, 29 Structural isomerism, ' 948, 949, 1015 Styrene—butadiene rubber, 1036, 1041 Subbituminous coal, 380 Subcritical reaction, 998 Sublimation, 806 of iodine, 405 of lithium, 598—599 Subshells, orbitals, 541 Substituent groups, naming of alkanes, 1016—1017 Substituted benzenes, 1025' Substituted hydrazines, 898 Substitutional alloys, 784 Substitution reactions, of hydrocarbons, 1019, 1025 Substrate, 744 Subtraction exponential notation, A2 significant figures, A15 Successive approximations, 263, A6, A7 Sucrose, 1053, 1054 Sugar of lead, 882 Sulfate ion, 38, 622—624 Sulfates, 320, A26 Sulfide ion, 35 Sulfides separation by selective precipitation, 328, 329—330, 336 solubility of, 328—330 solubility products for, 320, A26 Sulfite ion, 38 Sulfites, 912 Sulfur chemistry of, 910—914 combustion of, 912 crystals, 796, 797 electron configuration for, 556 elemental, 910 Frasch process, 871, 910-911 in human body, 869 ionization energy for, 563 monoclinic sulfur, 911, A23 in nature, 869, 910 oxyacids of, 912—913 physical properties of, 908 plastic sulfur, 911, 912 preparation of, 908 production of, 871 reaction with halogens, 914 rhombic sulfur, 910—911, A23 source of, 908 thermodynamic data for, A23—AZ4 Sulfur compounds, 913—914 Sulfur dioxide, 742 Lewis structure for, 639 molecular structure of, 639 oxidation reaction of, 175 oxidation to gaseous sulfur trioxide, 742 preparation of, 912 reaction with oxygen, 912 resonance structures for, 912 scrubbing of, 911 vibrations of, 687 Sulfur dioxide pollution, 175—176, 242 Sulfur-eating bacteria, treatment of coal with, 381 Sulfur hexafluoride, 618—619, 623, 660 Sulfuric acid, 44, 91, 92, 229 in acid rain, 175, 176, 226, 742 chemistry of, 913, 916 concentrated, 69, 795 contact process, 913 as dehydrating agent, 913 dilution of, 69 dissociation constants for, 249, A25 dissociation of, 251—253, 254 manufacture of, 69, 743 pH of, 251 preparation of, 913 uses of, 69 Sulfur monoxide, 9114912 Sulfurous acid, 44. 249, 912, A25 Sulfur oxides, 911—912 Sulfur oxyacids, 912—913 Sulfur pentafluoridc, 382 Sulfur-sulfur linkage, 1049 Sulfur trioxide, 69, 912 in atmosphere, 175 bonding in, 912 bond polarity in, 593 formation of, 175, 365—366, 742 molecular structure of, 913 physical properties of, 912 preparation of, 912 reaction with water, 913 Sunflower oil, as fuel, 390 Sunken treasure, chemistry of, 494 Superconductors, 788-789 Supercooling, 811 Supercritical fluid, 832—833 Supercritical reaction, 998 Superheating, 811 Supernova explosion, 985 Superoxides, formation of, 872, 873 Superphosphate of lime, 907 Superscript degree symbol, 423 Surface acoustic wave (SAW) device, 117 Surface tension, 770 Suspension, 853 Sylvite, 915 Syndiotactic chain, 1041 Syngas, 383, 385 Synthetic gems, 963 System, 349 Systematic error, A9 Taggants, 40 Tagging explosives, 40 Tanning lotion, 1051 Tarnish, 494 Taste, electronic tongue, 638 Technetium, 993 Technetium-99, 992, 993 Teflon, 921, 1035, 1036 Tellurium, 908 Temperature absolute zero, 144, 145 Charles’s law, 143—144, 147 chemical equilibrium and, 214—216 critical temperature, 811 definition of, 766 entropy, dependence on, 416—417 equilibrium constant and, 441—442 Graham’s law of effusion, 163, 164 heat different from, 348—349 ideal gas law, 148 kinetic molecular theory of gases, 155,159,160 “laser cooling", 145 spontaneity, effect of on, 419—422 unit of measurement, A16 van der Waals equation, 171—172 Tendons, 1048 Tera- (prefix), A16 Termolecular chemical reactions, 727 Terrorism, luggage screening, 117 tert- (prefix), 1017 Tertiary alcohol, 1026, 1029 Tertiary amine, 1032 Tertiary structure, proteins, 1048—1049 Tetra- (prefix), 38 Tetraethyl lead, 380, 743, 883 Tetrafluoroethylene, 1035 Tetrahedral atomic orbitals, 652 Tetrahedral complexes, 961—962 Tetrahedral holes, 798, 799—800 Tetrahedral molecular structure, 629, 632, 661 Tetrakis- (prefix), 946 Tetramethyl'silane (TMS), 692 Tetraphosphorus decoxide, 905-906 Tetrathionate ion, 914 Tetrose, 1050 Thallium, 550, 879 Thallium-201, 992 Thallium oxides, 879 Theoretical yield, 75 Theory, 8—9 Theory of special relativity, 564, 994 Thermal energy, 399 Thermal neutron analysis (TNA), 117 Thermal pollution, 837—838 Thermodynamics adiabatic processes, 446—450 basic definitions, 348—349 calorimetry, 362—369 chemical energy, 349—353 definition of, 351 energy, nature of, 348, 349 energy sources, 379—390 enthalpy, 354—355 entropy, 401—406, 413—419 equilibrium and, 193, 199 first law of, 351, 399, 400, 446 free ent'ruy, 422—425 Hess’s law, 369—372 ideal gases. 355—362 internal energy, 351 isothermal process, 406—413, 445 law of conservation of energy, 348, 351, 399 molar heat capacity, 355, 363 PV work, 353, 354, 365 reversible process, 409, 417, 446—447 second law of, 415, 418—419, 425, 446 of solution formation, 827—834 specific heat capacity, 363 spontaneous processes, 400—406, 703 stability of nucleus, 993—996 standard enthalpy of formation, 372—378 table of values by element, A21—A24 third law of, 426—428 work, 349, 352 'hermoplastic polymer, 1034 'hermoset polymer, 1034 ‘hiols, 746 ‘hiosulfate ion, 913—914 ‘hird law of thermodynamics, 426—428 ‘homson, j.]., 23 ‘homson, William. See Kelvin, Lord 'horium, 981, 987 ‘horium-230, 987 ‘horium»234, 981, 987 'hree-center bond, 877 ‘hree Mile Island accident, 1000 ‘hreonine, 1045 ‘hreshold energy, 736 ‘hymine, 1056 ‘hymol blue, 312, 313 'hymolphthalein, 313 ‘in, 881 allotropes of, 882 alloys of, 881-882 chemistry of, 882 physical properties of, 880 preparation of, 870, 880 source of, 880 thermodynamic data for, A24 uses of, 882 'in alloys, 881—882 Tin” cans, 497 ‘in disease, 882 'in(II) halides, 882 'in(IV) halides, 882 ‘in ions, 37, 123, 128 'ires, as fuel, 387 ‘itanium for bicycle frames, 939 biological function of, 967 chemical properties of, 934, 937 electron configuration for, 553, 933, 934 metallurgy of, 939 in nature, 869 physical properties of, 931, 934, 937, 939 thermodynamic data for, A24 uses of, 930, 937 Titanium alloys, 937 Titanium(IV) chloride, 937 Titanium(lIl) compounds, 938 Titanium compounds, 937—938, A24 Titanium dioxide, 840, 937 Titanium(IV) oxide, 13, 740 Titanium(IV) oxide, 937 Titanosilicate, 155 Titrant, 112 Titrations acid—base titrations, 112—113 halfway point in, 300 oxidation—reduction reaction, 128, 129—130 pH curves and, 293—309 TMS. See Tetramethyl silane TNA. See Thermal neutron analysis TNT. See Trinitrotoluene Tooth decay, 318, 462 Torricelli, Evangelista, 140 Trailing zero, A14 Transfer RNA (tRNA), 1057, 1059 trans isomer, 949 Transistors, 794—795 Transition elements, 569 Transition metal ions, gem colors, 963 Transition metals, 552, 930—943 chemical properties of, 931, 933, 934 coordination compounds, 943—948 electron configuration for, 553, 555, 931 ionization energy, 934—935 in living organisms, 930 oxidation state, 934—935 periodic table, 32, 33, 569, 932 physical properties of, 931, 934 Roman numerals in compound name, 36 standard reduction potential, 934, 935 uses of, 930, 937 See also First—row transition metals Transition state, 736 Translational energy, 355—356 Transmittance, A18 Transuranium elements, 989 Tri- (prefix), 38 Triads, 548 Triamminc, 948 Trichloroacetic acid, 1031 Trichloroethanoic acid, 1031 Trigonal bipyramidal molecular structure, 632, 661, 892—893 Trigonal holes, 798 Trigonal planar molecular structure, 628, 632, 661 Triiodide ion, 620, 635—636, 659 Trimethylamine, 1032 Trinitrotoluene (TNT), 894 Triose, 1050 Triple bond, 607, 608, 662 Triple phosphate, 907 Triple point, 811 Tripolyphosphoric acid, 906 Triprotic acids, 248, 315 Tris- (prefix), 946 tRNA. See Transfer RNA Tryptophan, 1045 Tufts smart window, 482 Tungsten, 931, 933 Tunneling, 21 Two-step compression, 41 1 Two—step expansion, 407—408 Tyndall effect, 853, 854 Type I binary compounds, 35 Type II binary compounds, 35—36 Type III binary compounds, 38—39 Tyrosine, 1045 Uhlenbeck, George, 545 Ultraviolet catastrophe, 513 Unbalanced equations, 66, 67 Unbranched hydrocarbons, 1014 Uncertainty principle, 528—530, 545 Unidentate ligands, 944, 945, 946 Unimolecular chemical reactions, 727 Unit cell, 771, 773 Unit factor, A17 Units of measurement, 7, A15—A18 conversion of, 8, A17 pressure of gases, 140—141 Universal gas constant, 145 Unsaturated hydrocarbons, hydrogenation of, 742 Uracil, 1056 Uranium crystalline Structure of, 773 enrichment of, 164—165 half-lives of nuclides, 987, 991 isotopes of, 164 nuclear fission, 997 radioactivity of, 981 thermodynamic data for, A24 Uranium-234, 987 Uranium-235, 997, 999 Uranium-238, 987, 989, 1001 Uranium-239, 1001 Urea, 841—842, 1013 US. Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (1996), 40 US. space program, 484 UTC (Coordinated Universal Time), 523 Valence electrons, 552 electron sea model, 782 Lewis structures, 611—615 molecular orbital model, 664—667, 782 Valence shell electron-pair repulsion model. See VSEPR model Valine, 1045 Vanadium biological function of, 967 chemical properties of, 934, 938 electron configuration for, 553, 933 physical properties of, 934 uses of, 930, 938 Vanadium alloys, 938 Vanadium(V) fluoride, 42 Vanadium(V) oxide, 938 Vanadium steel, 938 van der Waals, Johannes, 171 van der Waals equation, 171—172 Van der Waals forces, 767 van Gastel, Raoul, 778 Van Helmont, Jan Baptista, 140 Vanillin, 1030 van’t Hoff, Jacobus, 442, 852 van’t Hoff equation, 442 van’t Hoff factor, 852 Vapor, definition of, 804 VaporiZation, 804, 805 entropy change for, 418 of water, 350, 419, 765 Vapor pressure, 152, 804—808 critical point, 813 Raoult’s law, 840—841, 842, 843 of solutions, 840—844 triple point, 813 Vasopressin, 1046 Vehicles fuel cell buses, 486 See also Automobiles Vibrational frequency, 686 Vibrational SpeCtroscopy, 684—688 Vinegar, 92 Vinyl chloride, 11, 921 Viscosity, 770—771, 1039—1040 Vitamin A, 835 A93 A94 Index Vitamin C, 834, 835, A25 Vitamin E, 834 Volatility, 805 Volt (unit), 464 Volta, Alessandro, 465 Voltaic cells, 465 Voltmctcr, 464—465 Volume Avogadro’s law, 144 Boyle’s law, 141—143, 144, 147 Charles’s law, 143—144, 147 heating an ideal gas at constant volume, 355 intermolecular collisions, 168 measurement of, A8 van der Waals equation, 171—172 Volumetric analysis, acid—base titrations, 112 Volumetric pipet, 97 von Guericke, Otto, 140 von Nernst, Walter Hermann, 474, 475 VSEPR model, 627, 628—641, 679 complex ions and, 956 multiple bonds and, 637—639 summary of, 640 Vulcanization, 1034 Waage, Peter, 194 Walker, F. Ann, 901 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), 1004 ‘Wat‘er ' ‘ as an acid and a base, 231—232 autoionization of, 231 as base, 227 boiling-point elevation constant for, 846 boiling point of, 816 bond angles, 631 charge distribution in, 591 decomposition of, 201 electrolysis of, 386, 492—493 enthalpy of fusion of, 809 fluoridation of, 318 formation of, 374 freezing-point depression constant for, 846 hard water, 242—243, 878 hydration, 88 hydrogen bonding in, 766 Lewis structure for, 613—614, 630 melting point of, 808 molecular structure of, 29, 88, 630—631 phase diagram for, 812, 814—816 properties of, 846 reaction of ammonia with, 243—244 reduction of by alkali metal, 571 solubility of salts in, 102—103 as solvent, 88—90, 831—834 standard enthalpy of formation for, 373 standard entropy value for, 428 states of, 765 supercritical, 832—833 vaporization of, 350, 419, 765 vapor pressure of, 152—153 See also Aqueous reactions; Aqueous solutions; Ice; Steam Water softening, 242—243, 878 Water-soluble vitamins, 834 Wave equation. See Schrodinger wave equation Wave function, 527, 539—540 Wavelength (electromagnetic radiation), 511—512 Wave mechanics, 526 particle in a box, 536 periodic table, 555 Schrodinger wave equation, 527, 532 wave function, 527, 539—540 Wave number, 686 Waves, 511—512, 517—518 Weak acids, 92—93, 229, 261 buffered solutions, 279—293 mixture of, 237—239 percent dissociation, 239—241 pH of, 234—239, 266 polyprotic acids, 253—254 titration of, 312 weak acid—strong base titrations, 297—306 Weak acid—strong basc titrations, 297—306 Weak bases, 93, 244 buffered solutions, 279—293 Kb for, pH of, 244, 246 weak base—strong acid titrations, 306—309 Weak base—strong acid titrations, 306—309 Weak conjugate bases, 229 Weak electrolytes, 90, 92—93 Weak-field case, 958 Weighing, 18 Weight, 18 Weight percent, 58, 827 Wentorf, Robert H., Jr., 814 Werner, Alfred, 950 Wet process, 906 White dwarf, 985 White phosphorus, 797, 904 White, Scott, 1042 White tin, 882 Wilson, William W., 895 Wind farms, 384 WIPP. See Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Witherite, 876 Wohler, Friedrich, 1013 Wood alcohol, 1028 Work, 352 Cyclic expansion—compression process, 406—413 definition of, 349, 352 free energy and, 442—444 galvanic cells, 462 PV work, 353, 354, 365, 443 Wurtzite, 802, 803, A24 Wiistite, 804, A22 Xenon, 922 atmospheric abundance of, 921 boiling point of, 921 in earth’s atmosphere, 173 electronic configuration of, 924 freezing point of, 767 melting point of, 921 periodic table, 33 sources of, 993 thermodynamic data for, A24 Xenon-133, 993 Xenon compounds, 923, A24 Xenon difluoride, 663, 923 Xenon fluoride, 922 Xenon tetrafluoride, 370 crystals of, 923 Lewis structure for, 634, 660 preparation of, 922 VSEPR model, 634—635 X-ray diffraction, of solids, 771—774 X-rays, barium sulfate, 318 Yellow topaz, color of, 963 ~yl (suffix), 1016 -yne (suffix), 1022 Yucca Mountain waste site, 1004 i Zero-order rate law, 722—723, 725 Zero—order reaction, 722 Zeros, A14 Zewail, Ahmed H., 707 Ziegler, Karl, 1038 Ziegler—Natta catalyst, 1038, 1041 Zinc abundance in human body, 869 biological function of, 967 chemical properties of, 934 electron configuration for, 553 galvanizing, 488—489 in living organisms, 930 physical properties of, 934, 943 preparation of, 943 thermodynamic data for, A24 Zinc blende, 802, 803, A24 Zinc ion, 35 Zinc sulfide, 802—803 Zone of stability, 979 ...
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Index - aba arrangement, 776-777 abt arrangement, 777, 779...

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