chapter 16 - Acids and Bases Acids and Bases Chapter 16...

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Unformatted text preview: Acids and Bases Acids and Bases Chapter 16 Chapter 16 Omit Section 16.10 Omit Section 16.10 Practice: Appendix A.2 Practice: Appendix A.2-- logarithms logarithms General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska The Arrhenius Arrhenius definitions ( Chem 1 ): acids increase H + concentration in solutions bases increase OH concentration in solutions acid + base salt + water This definition confines us to aqueous solutions. Acids and Bases Acids and Bases General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska The H + Ion in Water The H + ( aq ) ion is simply a proton with no electrons. (H has one proton, one electron, and no neutrons.) In water, the H + ( aq ) ions form clusters . The simplest cluster is H 3 O + ( aq ) (H 2 O + H + ) . Larger clusters are H 5 O 2 + and H 9 O 4 + . Generally we use H + ( aq ) and H 3 O + ( aq ) interchangeably. Br Br nsted nsted-- Lowry Definition Lowry Definition of Acids and of Acids and Bases Bases General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska Proton Transfer Reactions Brnsted-Lowry Acid-Base Definition: Focus on the H + ( aq ) acid donates H + base accepts H + Br Br nsted nsted-- Lowry Acids and Lowry Acids and Bases Bases General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska rnsted-Lowry : acid donates H + and base accepts H + . Brnsted-Lowry base does not need to contain OH . Consider HCl( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) H 3 O + ( aq ) + Cl ( aq ) HCl donates a proton to water . Therefore, HCl is an acid . H 2 O accepts a proton from HCl . Therefore, H 2 O is a base . Water can behave as either an acid or a base . Amphoteric substances can behave as acids and bases. Br Br nsted nsted-- Lowry Acids and Lowry Acids and Bases Bases General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska Consider: HA( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) H 3 O + ( aq ) + A ( aq ) HA loses its proton (donates it to H 2 O); it is converted into A . HA: acid; A : base H 2 O accepts the proton (from HA); it is converted into H 3 O + . H 2 O: base; H 3 O + : acid Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska Consider: HA( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) H 3 O + ( aq ) + A ( aq ) HA loses its proton (donates it to H 2 O); it is converted into A . HA: acid; A : base H 2 O accepts the proton (from HA); it is converted into H 3 O + . H 2 O: base; H 3 O + : acid Whatever is left of the acid after the proton is donated is called its conjugate base ....
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This note was uploaded on 05/20/2008 for the course CHEM 2 taught by Professor Ciszkowska during the Spring '08 term at CUNY Brooklyn.

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chapter 16 - Acids and Bases Acids and Bases Chapter 16...

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