1508Midterm

1508Midterm - Psychology 1508 Leadership Spring 2006...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 1508: Leadership Spring 2006, Professor Ben-Shahar Midterm Exam Directions: “Put your answers to all the multiple choice questions on the answer sheet.“ Multiple Choice 11 point each—30 mints total! 1. In the “investing in Strengths“ article (in which Donald Clifton combines information from positive psychology and statistics from the Gallup organization), which of the following would his research suggest? A. if everyone practices piano for 30 minutes a day for ten years, skill levels would be almost indistinguishable. B. High school students who are highly proficient readers gain more from new reading strategies than do students with less ability. C. It takes more effort to go from +10 to +40 skill than from -40 to -10. D. Anyone can learn a task as well as anyone else. E, Putting all your eggs in one basket in terms of skills makes an individual one- dimensional and therefore is maladaptive. 2. Carl Rogers, in his essay “Some Hypotheses Regarding the Facilitation of Personal Growth”, argues that, in his experience, the best way to bring about growth in another person is: A. The rim-psychoanalytic approach to understanding personal history. B. An executive coach with knowledge of the business. C. The Myers-Briggs Personality Test instrument. D. A genuine relationship. E, A series of peak experiences followed by Being—Cognition reflection. 3. According to the Shamir article regarding life stories and leadership, what is the most important aspect for predicting the efficacy of a leader? A. High SE (self-esteem) due to parental engagement B. Authenticity C. Charisma I). High emotional intelligence E. Role models 4. According to Jennifer Campbell in her research on Self Concept Clarity (SCC), high SCC is associated with which of the following? A. Ruminative form of self-focused attention B. Low Neurotieism C. Low Agreeableness D. Low Self Esteem E. Low internal state awareness 5. In his essay on Executive Coaching, Axsmith argues that there are several conditions for successful exeCutive coaching. Which of these is NOT a requisite condition? A. The CEO must be receptive to new ways of looking at problems. B. The CEO must agree that the coach will act as an “ego check.” C. The CEO must affect “quantum change." D. The CEO must feel and exhibit “values harmony.” E. The coach must have the right backgrOund, credibility, and skills. 6. Attributional bias, as described by our guest lecturer Dafna Eylon, Ph.D. is the tendency to: A. Attribute your successes to external causes while attributing your failures to internal causes. B. Attribute your successes to internal causes while attributing your failures to external causes. C. Attribute your behavior to external causes, while attributing the behavior of others to internal causes. D. Attribute your behavior to internal causes, while attributing the behavior of others to external causes. E. Attribute the success of others to internal causes while attributing the failures of others to external causes. 7. In examining the traits of a good leader, Kirkpatrick and Locke argue that several traits do seem to presuppose and to be characteristic of leadership and some do not. These authors think that all of the following traits are requisite traits for leaders EXCEPT: A. Honesty B. Self—confidence C. Charisma D. Knowledge of the business E. Drive 8. Advantages of appreciative inquiry include: A. The unconditional acceptance of participants. B. The inclusion of negative events to promote group cohesion. C. The fostering of affective conflict to facilitate decision making. D. The lower likelihood of attribution bias. E. The use of grounded positivity to drive a vision of the future. 9. The main tenet of equity theory is: A. Everyone should be treated equally. B. Organizational environmental mistakes are allowed. C. Negotiations are zero sum. D. Trust begets trust. E. The more resources you input, the more output you receive. 10. Production increase which is not a consequence of actual changes in working conditions, but a result of management demonstrating interest in the workers, is an example of: A. The Sleeper effect B. Theory Y C. Psychological Safety D. Expectancy Theory E. The Hawthorne effect 11. The value in focusing on behaviors rather than the person includes: A. Feedback is more readily accepted. B. Behaviors are knowable. C. Behaviors are measurable and quantifiable. D. B and C. B. All of the above. 12. Long term goals should: A. be realistic and easily achievable. B. drive the mission statement. C. be meaningful to customers and clients. D. be ambitious—with a 50% chance of achieving them. E. be valid 100 years from now. 13. In Jennifer Campbell’s cross-cultural assessment of Self-Concept Clarity (SCC), which of the following did she find? A. Japanese participants exhibited higher levels of SCC than Canadians. B. Japanese participants showed higher correlations between SCC and Self-esteem than did Canadians. C. SCC is a static state regardless of Eastern and Western culture. D. Canadians had higher levels of SCC than Japanese participants. E. Authoritarian regimes have higher SCC rates than more democratic cultures. 14. The “Zone of Great Leadership” is: Operating from your strengths The intersection of one’s passions and strengths Complete immersion in what you do Vision towards a lofty goal Grounded optimism WUOFU? 15. [n 2002 there were 17? studies which showed that the higher a person gets on the organizational chart, The more important emotional intelligence is The more dogmatic hefshe becomes The less important the person’s IQ is The less reliable feedback her( she receives The less hefshe enjoys hisr’her work meow? 16. What was presented in lecture as the most significant danger of moral relativism? Having no beautiful enemies The skipper effect Not being aware of the consequences of our actions Inaction Not appreciating differences Fill-70F“? 17. One of the central tenets of Mary Follet’s beliefs is: A. People tend to shirk when given the opportunity. B. People are motivated primarily by extrinsic rewards. C. People have a natural desire to self govern. D. People prefer clear reward structures. E. People prefer structure to ambiguity. 18. Janusian thinking involves: Counterintuitive judgment when leading. Keeping two opposing thoughts in mind at the same time. Focusing on strengths while managing weaknesses. Leadership development in coaching. Investing in cognitive strengths. PROOF”? 19. According to research, the best predictor of future success is: A. Feedback from boss. B. Feedback from family members. C. Self—appraisal. D. Feedback fiom personality tests. E. Feedback from peers and subordinates. 20. According to Daniel Goleman, mest leadership development programs fail because: A. They lack intellectual rigor. B. They target the neo—cortex in stead of the limbic brain. C. The facilitators lack business experience themselves. D. Leadership is a genetic trait. E. Lack of resources. 21. F iedler’s (1966) Contingency Theory suggests that: Excellent leaders always have a “back-up” plan. Leadership success depends on certain events occurring. Effective leaders must continue to change over time. Able leaders are skilled in switching between relational and authoritative leadership styles as needed. E. Leadership development is contingent upon effective mentoring. DOW? 22. What are the components of a vision? A. Mission statement, goals, core values, vivid picture. B. Powerful imagery, resonance with followers, strong leaders, results. C. Organizational strengths, meaningful to leader, structure, transparency D. Grounded optimism, meaningfirl to others, core values, concrete goals. B. Mission statement, zone of greatness, core values, attainable action steps. 23. In Bill George’s article on “The Journey to Authenticity”, all of the following are dimensions of authentic leaders EXCEPT: A. Establishing enduring relationships. B. Demonstrating self discipline. C. Leading with heart. D. Understanding your purpose. E. Proficiency in one’s domain. 24. In David Day’s “Leadership Development: A Review in Context,” he differentiates “leadership” and “leader” deveIOpment. Which of the following would he agree with? A. Leadership development focuses on human capital. B. Leader development has little practical value. Leadership development does. C. Leadership development has little practical value. Leader development does. D. Leader development focuses equally on human capital and social capital. E. Leadership development focuses on social capital. 25. Scott Snook in “Be, Know, Do” describes the progression of moral capacities that a West Point cadet must go through to become a leader of character. Which is his progression? A. Capability, Competence, Character B. Sensitivity, Judgment, Courage C. Sympathy, Empathy, Action D. Action, Reflection, Leadership E. React, Reflect, Recreate 26. in Richard Boyatzis and Ellen Van Oosten’s article on building an emotionally intelligent organization, they describe four clusters of competence relating to outstanding leadership. Which of the following is NOT one of the clusters they mentioned? A. Self-awareness cluster B. Social awareness cluster C. Relationship management cluster D. Technical expertise cluster E. Self-management cluster 27. In “Tackling a Leadership Crisis," Warren Bennis describes different leadership concepts that he disagrees with. With which of the following statements would he most likely AGREE? A. Leadership is a rare, and thus invaluable, skill. B. Leaders are born not made. C. A leader controls, directs and prods others. D. Leaders are charismatic. E. Leadership exists at all levels of an organization. 28. in “Executive Coaching that Wins,” Eggers and Clark identify four key limitations to traditional leadership training approaches. Which of the following is not one of those reasons? A. Low transfer of training B. Lack of relevancy for the client C. Lack of clear plan created by the coach D. Barriers to change in the workplace E. Individual differences in learning readiness and style 29. In “Tackling a Leadership Crisis,” Warren Bennis describes the difference between managers and leaders. ‘Which of the following is a correct pairing? A. A manager opts for “push” rather than “pull.” B. A leader asks “how?” A manager asks “what?” and “why?” C. A leader is concerned with efficiency. A manager is concerned with effectiveness. D. A leader is concerned with systems, controls, and structure. E. A manager looks at the horizon. A leader looks at the bottom line. 30. According to Chemers’ explanation of the effect that the historian Burns had upon leadership awareness in the mid 1930's, a leader who influences followers to transcend personal interests to work for a collective good best describes what kind of leader? A. Transactional B. Transcendental C. Feminine D. Socialist E. Transformational “Make sure to answer all four short answers on the answer sheet!“ ...
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1508Midterm - Psychology 1508 Leadership Spring 2006...

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