David HoweAssignment #2Oliveras1.Peptidoglycan is a substance found in the cell wall of bacteria gram positive and gram negative cells. It is made up of a carbohydrate “backbone” and an amino acid side chain connected by a peptide cross-bridge. The carbohydrates are held together by teichoic acid. There is a much thicker cell wall of peptidoglycan in gram positive bacteria than in gram negative. The weakness of peptidoglycan is that penicillin and lysozyme attack synthesis in gram positive bacteria cells.2.In bacteria cells there are two ways in which DNA is organized within the cell. The first and most known way is that DNA is tightly compacted within a chromosome, referred to as supercoiling. The chromosome is located in the center of the cell in an area labeled the nucleoid. The second place DNA may be found packaged in a bacteria cell would be plasmids, which are stable extrachromosomal DNA elements. However, they do not carry essential
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