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A. The Reconstruction period took place after the Civil war from 1865-1877 by Abraham Lincoln to rebuild the South that occupied Union soldiers. There were many changes that affected African-Americans, such as amendments 13-15, which gave them certain rights. This period was very important for Blacks in America, it was the time when they were completely free from slavery and the citizenship changed how they lived their lives. They were given civil rights, which gave them the right to sue or sit on juries, voting, and owning property. This time frame also gave us the creation of the first public school systems in the South. There were changes in the labor force and working conditions, which came about with sharecropping. (Norton, 2015)One thing that changed everything for African-Americans forever, was the 13th Amendment, which gave them freedom. The 13th Amendment became ratified in December 1865, which officially abolished slavery in the United States. Basically, stating that no person could be forced into slavery unless it’s for punishment. (Norton, 2015)The 14th Amendment, ratified on July 1868, even though most Southern States had originally rejected it. This amendment granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States. Which meant that all people, including former slaves, including those freed after the CivilWar, were now considered citizens. This was also known as the Reconstruction Amendment, which forbade states to deny life, liberty, and land without due process. Reconstruction Era Factsfor Kids. (N.D.). It also stated that everyone is entitled to equal protection under the law. The 15th Amendment gave African-American men the right to vote, which became ratified in February 1870. It stated that the right to vote couldn’t be denied to any citizen, regardless of race, color, or being a former slave. There were organizations created in order educate and train in the registration process in voting, for Blacks. Even though the Southern states were finding ways to make African-Americans ineligible to vote, such as literacy tests and using polling taxes.(Norton, 2015)For example, White men and plantation owners dominated Southern society continued to have extreme racism regardless of the Amendments. Poll taxes were being implemented to keep blacks from voting, they didn’t have ways of making money, which made it next to impossible tovote. The whites didn’t like that former slave was now free and continued to try to control the freedom of the slaves by implanting restrictions like Black Codes. Things like the literacy test were an example of a black code, as well as having residence and landowner requirements to vote. Owning land was one of the requirements to be able to vote, thus sharecropping was created to gain this freedom as well as helping each other out. Sharecropping had an impact on the economy, at least among the Black community. Whites used this idea to bring back slavery by restoring gang labor with White overseers. But the Congress and its Radical Republicans, which encouraged free blacks to refuse to sign contracts on gang labor. Which eventually led to