Exam 2 Study Guide - WEEK 7 Proteins and Amino Acids All...

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WEEK 7 Proteins and Amino Acids All amino acids have the same simple chemical backbone consisting of a single carbon atom with an amine group (the nitrogen-containing part) and an acid group attached to it. Each amino acid also has a distinctive chemical side chain attached to the center carbon of the backbone. It is this side chain that gives identity and chemical nature to each amino acid. Amino acids link into long strands that coil and fold to make a wide variety of different proteins. Essential amino acids: amino acids that either cannot be synthesized at all by the body or cannot be synthesized in amounts sufficient to meet physiological need.; nine of them; without them, the body cannot make the proteins it needs to do its work and can only be replenished from foods; conditionally essential amino acid: an amino acid that is normally nonessential but must be supplied by the diet in special circumstances when the need for it exceeds the body’s ability to produce it The side chains make different proteins different and an infinite number of sequences of amino acids can be found 1) Stomach – when swallowed, food arrives in the stomach, acid denatures the protein strands, and an enzyme cleaves amino acid strands into polypeptides and a few amino acids; 2) Small intestine – enzymes from the pancreas and the intestine split peptide strands into tripeptides, deipeptides, and amino acids; 3) Small intestine – enzymes on the surface of the small intestine’s lining and within the absorptive cells split tripeptides and deipeptides, the intestinal cells absorb and transfer amino acids to the bloodstream; 4) Bloodstream – the bloodstream transports amino acids to all the body’s cells. Roles of protein in body: Acid-base balances, antibodies, blood clotting, energy, enzymes, fluid and electrolyte balance, growth and maintenance, hormones, and transportation. Two types of protein-calorie malnutrition: 1) Marasmus – infants and toddlers, severe deprivation of protein, energy, vitamins and minerals, develops slowly, severe weight loss, severe muscle wasting with fat loss, extremely short for age, no detectable edema, no fatty liver, anxiety, appetite is impaired, hair is easily pulled out, skin is dry and wrinkled; Kwashiorkor – older infants and younger children, inadequate protein, rapid onset, some weight loss, some muscle wasting, short for age, edema, fatty liver, misery, loss of appetite, hair changes color and easily pulled out, skin develops lesions. Consuming too much protein can lead to heart disease, kidney disease, adult bone loss, and cancer Vegetarian Diets Fruitarian - includes only raw or dried fruits, seeds, and nuts in diet; Lacto-ovo vegetarian – includes dairy products, eggs, vegetables, grains, legumes, fruits, and nuts, excludes flesh and seafood; Lacto-vegetarian – includes dairy products, vegetables, grains, legumes, fruits, and nuts, excludes flesh, seafood, and eggs; Macrobiotic diet – vegan diet composed mostly of whole grains, beans, and certain vegetables (dangerous); Ovo–vegetarian – includes eggs, vegetables,
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This note was uploaded on 05/27/2008 for the course HNF 150 taught by Professor Thurston during the Winter '07 term at Michigan State University.

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Exam 2 Study Guide - WEEK 7 Proteins and Amino Acids All...

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