Objectives 4 - Learning objectives#4 Respiration Reading...

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Learning objectives #4 Respiration Reading: Chapter 9  1. Give one example of a kinase from glycolysis. What does this enzyme do? (ATP,  substrate, high-energy phosphate bond) Pyruvate is a kinase from glycolysis. It catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate to ATP to  yield one molecule pyruvate and one molecule ATP. The phosphate group comes from a  phosphorylate substrate to ADP, and then forms a high energy ATP bond. Phosphofructokinase transfers a phosphate from ATP to the opposite end of fructose-6- phosphate, increasing its potential energy and converting it to fructose-1,6-biphosphate 2. Summarize the role of redox reactions in cellular respiration.  There's a lot of energy stored in the bonds between the carbon and hydrogen atoms in glucose.  During cellular respiration, redox reactions basically transfer this bond energy in the form of  electrons from glucose to molecules called electron carriers. So an electron carrier is basically a  molecule that transports electrons during cellular respiration. By using electron carriers, energy  harvested from glucose can be temporarily stored until the cell can convert the energy into ATP. Redox reactions are consistently occurring throughout cellular respiration and can be observed  through the transfer of electrons and the oxidation of glucose and the reduction of molecules such as NAD+ to NADH and FAD+ to FADH2 3. ATP can be produced by oxidative phosphorylation and substrate-level  phosphorylation. Give a specific example of each during cellular respiration.* Substrate-level: metabolic reaction that results in ATP or GTP by donation of PO3 to  ADP or GDP from a reactive intermediate (during glycolysis and krebs cycle) o Substrate-level phosphorylation occurs during glycolysis and the citric acid cycle  and yields two ATP; it is the production of ATP by the transfer of a phosphate  group from an intermediate substrate directly to ADP.   oxidative phosphorylation: takes place during cellular respiration. NADH is oxidized to  form NAD+, yielding 2.5 ATP and FADH2 yields 1.5 ATP during oxidation. Uses an  electrochemical or chemiosmotic chemiosmosis gradient of protons (H+) across the inner mitochondrial membrane to generate ATP from ADP and a molecule of inorganic  phosphate, which is a key difference from substrate-level phosphorylation. o Oxidative phosphorylation occurs during the electron transport chain and yields  about 25 ATP; it is the production of ATP molecule by ATP synthase using the  proton gradient established via redox reactions of an electron transport chain 4. How does NADH store the energy released during glycolysis? (reduction, oxidation,  electron)
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